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RNA Sensing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Impact on TB Vaccination Strategies

1
Department of Infectious Diseases and Hematology, University Hospital of Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
2
Department of Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Charité – University Medical Center Berlin, 12203 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010067
Received: 11 December 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2020 / Accepted: 1 February 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
Tuberculosis (TB) is still an important global threat and although the causing organism has been discovered long ago, effective prevention strategies are lacking. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is a unique pathogen with a complex host interaction. Understanding the immune responses upon infection with MTB is crucial for the development of new vaccination strategies and therapeutic targets for TB. Recently, it has been proposed that sensing bacterial nucleic acid in antigen-presenting cells via intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a central mechanism for initiating an effective host immune response. Here, we summarize key findings of the impact of mycobacterial RNA sensing for innate and adaptive host immunity after MTB infection, with emphasis on endosomal toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytosolic sensors such as NLRP3 and RLRs, modulating T-cell differentiation through IL-12, IL-21, and type I interferons. Ultimately, these immunological pathways may impact immune memory and TB vaccine efficacy. The novel findings described here may change our current understanding of the host response to MTB and potentially impact clinical research, as well as future vaccination design. In this review, the current state of the art is summarized, and an outlook is given on how progress can be made. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA; tuberculosis; vaccine; TLR8; NRLP3; RLRs; IL-12; IL-21; type I interferons RNA; tuberculosis; vaccine; TLR8; NRLP3; RLRs; IL-12; IL-21; type I interferons
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MDPI and ACS Style

Burkert, S.; Schumann, R.R. RNA Sensing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Its Impact on TB Vaccination Strategies. Vaccines 2020, 8, 67.

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