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Open AccessArticle

Vaccination Programs for Adults in Europe, 2019

Department of Pediatrics, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Institute of Public Health of Vojvodina, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Blood Transfusion Center, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, 68100 Alexandroupolis, Greece
Aghia Sophia Children’s Hospital, First Department of Pediatrics, University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
Department for Interventions in Health Care Facilities, National Organization of Public Health, 15123 Athens, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vaccines 2020, 8(1), 34;
Received: 25 December 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2020 / Accepted: 16 January 2020 / Published: 20 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination and Vaccine Effectiveness)
Background: While all European countries implement vaccination programs for children, there are gaps in terms of vaccination programs for adults. Methods: We studied the 2019 vaccination policies for adults in 42 European countries. Results: Vaccination programs for adults were in place in all countries. However, there were considerable differences between countries in terms of number of vaccinations, target populations and frame of implementation (recommended or mandatory vaccinations). In particular the following vaccination policies were in place: influenza (42 countries), tetanus (31), diphtheria (30), pneumococcus (29), hepatitis B (20), pertussis (18), measles (14), human papilloma virus (14), meningococcus tetravalent A,C,W,Y (14), rubella (13), hepatitis A (11), mumps (11), poliomyelitis (10), herpes zoster (9), varicella (8), tick-born encephalitis (8), meningococcus B (6), rabies (6), Haemophilus influenzae type b (5), tuberculosis (3), typhoid fever (3), meningococcus C (2), and yellow fever (1). Seventeen countries implement mandatory vaccinations, mainly against diphtheria, tetanus and hepatitis B. Conclusions: There are significant differences in vaccination programs for adults in Europe. Routine vaccination programs for adults need to be strengthened. A consensus-based vaccination program is needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccinations; immunizations; programs; adults; Europe vaccinations; immunizations; programs; adults; Europe
MDPI and ACS Style

Cassimos, D.C.; Effraimidou, E.; Medic, S.; Konstantinidis, T.; Theodoridou, M.; Maltezou, H.C. Vaccination Programs for Adults in Europe, 2019. Vaccines 2020, 8, 34.

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