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A Recombinant La Sota Vaccine Strain Expressing Multiple Epitopes of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) Protects Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) Chickens against IBV and NDV Challenges

1
Department of Avian Diseases, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai 200241, China
2
Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430070, China
3
Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Vaccines 2019, 7(4), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7040170
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 30 October 2019 / Accepted: 30 October 2019 / Published: 1 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Veterinary Vaccines)
Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are two major infectious diseases that are a threat to the domestic poultry industry. In this study, we successfully generated a recombinant LaSota candidate vaccine strain, rNDV-IBV-T/B, which expresses a short, synthetic, previously identified IBV S1 multi-epitope cassette using the reverse genetic system. The recombinant virus was propagated in nine-day-old embryonated chicken eggs for 20 passages and genetic stability was confirmed by whole genome DNA sequencing. The recombinant virus had a hemagglutination (HA) titer of 210, mean death time (MDT) of 118 hours, and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 0.05. None of these were significantly different from the parental Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota strain (p > 0.05). Vaccination of white leghorn chickens at one day of age with 106 EID50 rNDV-IBV-T/B provided 90% protection against virulent IBV M41 challenge at three weeks of age, which was significantly higher than the protection of the control group vaccinated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (p < 0.05). The ciliostasis scores of rNDV-IBV-T/B-vaccinated and LaSota-vaccinated groups were 4.2 and 37.6, respectively, which indicated that rNDV-IBV-T/B vaccination reduced the pathogenicity of IBV toward the trachea. Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR assay showed that the rNDV-IBV-T/B vaccination resulted in low levels of viral load (647.80 ± 49.65 RNA copies) in the trachea four days post-challenge, which is significantly lower than groups vaccinated with PBS (8591.25 ± 311.10 RNA copies) or LaSota (7742.60 ± 298.50 RNA copies) (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the same dose of rNDV-IBV-T/B vaccination provided complete protection against velogenic NDV F48E9 challenge. These results demonstrate that the rNDV-IBV-T/B strain is a promising vaccine candidate to control both IB and ND simultaneously. Furthermore, epitope-based live vector vaccines provide an alternative strategy for the development of cost-effective and, broadly, cross-protective vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: Newcastle disease virus vector; infectious bronchitis virus; multi-epitope vaccine; challenge; cross-protection Newcastle disease virus vector; infectious bronchitis virus; multi-epitope vaccine; challenge; cross-protection
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Tan, L.; Wen, G.; Qiu, X.; Yuan, Y.; Meng, C.; Sun, Y.; Liao, Y.; Song, C.; Liu, W.; Shi, Y.; Shao, H.; Ding, C. A Recombinant La Sota Vaccine Strain Expressing Multiple Epitopes of Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) Protects Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) Chickens against IBV and NDV Challenges. Vaccines 2019, 7, 170.

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