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Development of Universal Influenza Vaccines Targeting Conserved Viral Proteins

Centre for Virus and Vaccine Research, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
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Vaccines 2019, 7(4), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7040169
Received: 16 August 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 October 2019 / Published: 1 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Influenza Virus Vaccines)
Vaccination is still the most efficient way to prevent an infection with influenza viruses. Nevertheless, existing commercial vaccines face serious limitations such as availability during epidemic outbreaks and their efficacy. Existing seasonal influenza vaccines mostly induce antibody responses to the surface proteins of influenza viruses, which frequently change due to antigenic shift and or drift, thus allowing influenza viruses to avoid neutralizing antibodies. Hence, influenza vaccines need a yearly formulation to protect against new seasonal viruses. A broadly protective or universal influenza vaccine must induce effective humoral as well as cellular immunity against conserved influenza antigens, offer good protection against influenza pandemics, be safe, and have a fast production platform. Nanotechnology has great potential to improve vaccine delivery, immunogenicity, and host immune responses. As new strains of human epidemic influenza virus strains could originate from poultry and swine viruses, development of a new universal influenza vaccine will require the immune responses to be directed against viruses from different hosts. This review discusses how the new vaccine platforms and nanoparticles can be beneficial in the development of a broadly protective, universal influenza vaccine. View Full-Text
Keywords: seasonal influenza vaccine; universal influenza vaccine; humoral and cell-mediated immunity; conserved viral proteins seasonal influenza vaccine; universal influenza vaccine; humoral and cell-mediated immunity; conserved viral proteins
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Jazayeri, S.D.; Poh, C.L. Development of Universal Influenza Vaccines Targeting Conserved Viral Proteins. Vaccines 2019, 7, 169.

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