Next Article in Journal
Dog Ecology, Bite Incidence, and Disease Awareness: A Cross-Sectional Survey among a Rabies-Affected Community in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Previous Article in Journal
Immunogenicity and Protection Efficacy of a Naked Self-Replicating mRNA-Based Zika Virus Vaccine
Open AccessArticle

Procurement of Category 2 Vaccines in China

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety (Ministry of Education), Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
Office of General Affairs and Emergency Management, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Changning District, Shanghai 200051, China
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors have equally contributed to this work.
Vaccines 2019, 7(3), 97;
Received: 6 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 23 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Vaccines and Society)
Internationally, vaccine pricing is relatively opaque, although many low- or lower-middle-income countries belong to international consortiums that jointly procure vaccines. China procures vaccines domestically, and vaccines that require payment from the public (“category 2 vaccines”), have undergone several regulatory changes over the past 15 years. This study aims to describe the vaccine procurement method changes in China since 2005 and to analyze how the procurement method impacted vaccine price. This review of vaccine procurement reforms found that a shift to provincial-level Group Purchasing Organizations after 2016 was accompanied by an increase in most prices. There was more variability in vaccine prices across provinces for vaccines with only one supplier, and these vaccines have a higher price than what is found in United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)-supported countries. China’s current procurement system for non-mandatory vaccines leaves these vaccines costing several-fold more than in other countries, and in particular those supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. Exploring a variety of methods to reduce vaccine purchase prices will not only directly benefit the general population, but also the government, as they aim to implement more programs to benefit public health in a cost-effective manner. View Full-Text
Keywords: China; vaccine procurement; vaccine economics China; vaccine procurement; vaccine economics
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhuang, J.-L.; Wagner, A.L.; Laffoon, M.; Lu, Y.-H.; Jiang, Q.-W. Procurement of Category 2 Vaccines in China. Vaccines 2019, 7, 97.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop