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Open AccessArticle

Microcrystalline Tyrosine (MCT®): A Depot Adjuvant in Licensed Allergy Immunotherapy Offers New Opportunities in Malaria

Nuffield Department of Medicine, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Physiology (CCMP), The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK
Allergy Therapeutics (UK) Ltd. Dominion Way, Worthing BN14 8SA, UK
Bencard Allergie GmbH, Leopoldstr, 175, 80804 München, Germany
Immunology, RIA, Inselspital, University of Bern, 3010 Bern ,Switzerland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shiladitya DasSarma
Vaccines 2017, 5(4), 32;
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
PDF [3002 KB, uploaded 29 September 2017]


Microcrystalline Tyrosine (MCT®) is a widely used proprietary depot excipient in specific immunotherapy for allergy. In the current study we assessed the potential of MCT to serve as an adjuvant in the development of a vaccine against malaria. To this end, we formulated the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of P. vivax in MCT and compared the induced immune responses to CSP formulated in PBS or Alum. Both MCT and Alum strongly increased immunogenicity of CSP compared to PBS in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. Challenge studies in mice using a chimeric P. bergei expressing CSP of P. vivax demonstrated clinically improved symptoms of malaria with CSP formulated in both MCT and Alum; protection was, however, more pronounced if CSP was formulated in MCT. Hence, MCT may be an attractive biodegradable adjuvant useful for the development of novel prophylactic vaccines. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine; malaria; adjuvant; MCT vaccine; malaria; adjuvant; MCT

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Cabral-Miranda, G.; Heath, M.D.; Gomes, A.C.; Mohsen, M.O.; Montoya-Diaz, E.; Salman, A.M.; Atcheson, E.; Skinner, M.A.; Kramer, M.F.; Reyes-Sandoval, A.; Bachmann, M.F. Microcrystalline Tyrosine (MCT®): A Depot Adjuvant in Licensed Allergy Immunotherapy Offers New Opportunities in Malaria. Vaccines 2017, 5, 32.

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