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Vaccines 2015, 3(4), 940-972;

Live-Attenuated Bacterial Vectors: Tools for Vaccine and Therapeutic Agent Delivery

School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora VIC-3083, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vasso Apostolopoulos
Received: 15 May 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 10 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccine Delivery)
Full-Text   |   PDF [28131 KB, uploaded 10 November 2015]   |  


Genetically attenuated microorganisms, including pathogenic and commensal bacteria, can be engineered to carry and deliver heterologous antigens to elicit host immunity against both the vector as well as the pathogen from which the donor gene is derived. These live attenuated bacterial vectors have been given much attention due to their capacity to induce a broad range of immune responses including localized mucosal, as well as systemic humoral and/or cell-mediated immunity. In addition, the unique tumor-homing characteristics of these bacterial vectors has also been exploited for alternative anti-tumor vaccines and therapies. In such approach, tumor-associated antigen, immunostimulatory molecules, anti-tumor drugs, or nucleotides (DNA or RNA) are delivered. Different potential vectors are appropriate for specific applications, depending on their pathogenic routes. In this review, we survey and summarize the main features of the different types of live bacterial vectors and discussed the clinical applications in the field of vaccinology. In addition, different approaches for using live attenuated bacterial vectors for anti-cancer therapy is discussed, and some promising pre-clinical and clinical studies in this field are outlined. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine; attenuated vector; infectious disease; Salmonella; cancer vaccine; attenuated vector; infectious disease; Salmonella; cancer

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lin, I.Y.C.; Van, T.T.H.; Smooker, P.M. Live-Attenuated Bacterial Vectors: Tools for Vaccine and Therapeutic Agent Delivery. Vaccines 2015, 3, 940-972.

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