Next Article in Journal
Live-Attenuated Bacterial Vectors: Tools for Vaccine and Therapeutic Agent Delivery
Next Article in Special Issue
The Dichotomy of Tumor Exosomes (TEX) in Cancer Immunity: Is It All in the ConTEXt?
Previous Article in Journal
The Use of Synthetic Carriers in Malaria Vaccine Design
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Synthetic Virus-Like Particle Streptococcal Vaccine Candidate Using B-Cell Epitopes from the Proline-Rich Region of Pneumococcal Surface Protein A
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Vaccines 2015, 3(4), 930-939;

From Antigen Delivery System to Adjuvanticy: The Board Application of Nanoparticles in Vaccinology

Institute of Protein Biochemistry, National Research Council, Via Pietro Castellino 111, I-80131 Napoli, Italy
Institute of Biomedical Technologies, National Research Council, Via Fratelli Cervi 93, 20090 Segrate (Milano), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Darrell J. Irvine
Received: 7 August 2015 / Revised: 11 September 2015 / Accepted: 30 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines)
Full-Text   |   PDF [133 KB, uploaded 5 November 2015]   |  


In the last years, nanotechnologies have raised great interest because of the potential applications of engineered nanoparticles in nanomedicine (i.e., in vaccination, in diagnostic imaging procedures, and as therapeutic drug delivery systems). The use of nanoparticles in medicine has brought about the issue of their interaction with the immune system for two main reasons: first, understanding how long nanomedicines could persist in the organism and exert their beneficial effects before being recognized and eliminated by our defensive systems; second, understanding how the immune responses can be modulated by nanoparticles in order to obtain optimal effects. This issue is crucial in vaccine formulations based on the use of nanoparticles, which can operate both as a delivery system to enhance antigen processing and as an immunostimulatory adjuvant to induce and amplify protective immunity, in part because of their ability to activate the inflammasome and induce the maturation of interleukin 1β. Nanoparticles can be excellent adjuvants due to their biocompatibility and their physicochemical properties (e.g., size, shape, and surface charge), which can be tailored to obtain different immunological effects. This review provides an overview of recent strategies for the use of nanoparticles as promising/attractive adjuvants for novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. The use of nanovaccines, with their practically infinite possibilities of specific design, could open the way to precision vaccinology, i.e., vaccine formulations tailored on the individual immune reactivity status. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; vaccines; adjuvants; inflammation nanoparticles; vaccines; adjuvants; inflammation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Boraschi, D.; Italiani, P. From Antigen Delivery System to Adjuvanticy: The Board Application of Nanoparticles in Vaccinology. Vaccines 2015, 3, 930-939.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Vaccines EISSN 2076-393X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top