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Vaccines 2015, 3(3), 620-637;

Plant Viruses as Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines and Adjuvants

Immunovirology laboratory, Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Institut Armand-Frappier, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, QC H1V 1B7, Canada
Department of Microbiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Infectious Disease Research Centre, Laval University, Quebec City, QC G1V 4G2, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Darrell J. Irvine
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 29 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines)
Full-Text   |   PDF [222 KB, uploaded 5 August 2015]


Vaccines are considered one of the greatest medical achievements in the battle against infectious diseases. However, the intractability of various diseases such as hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and cancer poses persistent hurdles given that traditional vaccine-development methods have proven to be ineffective; as such, these challenges have driven the emergence of novel vaccine design approaches. In this regard, much effort has been put into the development of new safe adjuvants and vaccine platforms. Of particular interest, the utilization of plant virus-like nanoparticles and recombinant plant viruses has gained increasing significance as an effective tool in the development of novel vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. The present review summarizes recent advances in the use of plant viruses as nanoparticle-based vaccines and adjuvants and their mechanism of action. Harnessing plant-virus immunogenic properties will enable the design of novel, safe, and efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: recombinant plant virus; vaccine; adjuvant; immune response; production methods recombinant plant virus; vaccine; adjuvant; immune response; production methods
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lebel, M.-È.; Chartrand, K.; Leclerc, D.; Lamarre, A. Plant Viruses as Nanoparticle-Based Vaccines and Adjuvants. Vaccines 2015, 3, 620-637.

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