Overview of Tools and Measures Investigating Vaccine Hesitancy in a Ten Year Period: A Scoping Review
1.2. Review Rationale
1.3. Review Objective
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Eligibility Criteria
2.2. Search Strategy
2.3. Study Selection
2.4. Data Charting
2.5. Data Synthesis and Analysis
3.1. General Characteristics of Included Studies
3.2. Synopsis of Each Included Tool or Measure
3.2.1. Quantitative Tools or Measures
3.2.2. Qualitative Tools/Measures
3.2.3. Major Similarities and Differences of the Tools and Measures
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Study Title||Example of Item||Major Advantage/Finding|
(as Reported by the Authors)
|Major Disadvantage/Limitation (as Reported by the Authors)|
|Parental hesitation in immunizing children in Utah.||My child was delayed with immunizations because I have the following concerns about vaccine safety:||Hesitant parents have serious concerns regarding|
|The convenience sample was from one state, thus the findings cannot be generalized to other populations.|
|Attitudinal and demographic predictors of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine acceptance: Development and validation of an evidence-based measurement instrument.||MMR has serious side effects.||The instrument is able|
to elicit consistent responses at different time periods and on
items which are conceptually/empirically linked, is able to discriminate
between participants with differing MMR behaviors and is able to predict MMR behavior in multivariate analyses.
|The study employed a retrospective design in which attitudes were measured after MMR doses were received, therefore the extent to which these attitudes incorporate retrospective justification and are able to predict future MMR behavior is yet to be ascertained.|
|Development of a survey to identify vaccine-hesitant parents. The parent attitudes about childhood vaccines survey.||Have you ever decided not to have your child get a shot for reasons other than illness or allergy?||The final version of the PACV contains 18 items, takes 5 min or less to complete, and reads at a 6th grade level.||The total number of parents (N = 4) in the two focus groups was small and is therefore likely not representative of the larger vaccine hesitant parent population, a very heterogeneous group.|
|Reasons why women accept or reject the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) during pregnancy.||Who gave you advice about seasonal influenza and the influenza vaccine during your pregnancy?||The two-for-one benefit to mother and infant is pivotal knowledge and a predictor of future vaccination.||It was based on the experiences of 60 women during a specific time period, and although the sample had diverse cultural, educational and socio-economic backgrounds, the thematic analysis does not represent all possible responses.|
|The Vaccination Confidence Scale: A brief measure of parents’ vaccination beliefs.||Vaccines are necessary to protect|
the health of teenagers.
|Our nationally-representative sample allowed for the development of a robust tool tested with respect to demographic characteristics known to correlate with vaccination beliefs.||The primary limitation of this study was the modest number of items available for scale development.|
|Measuring vaccine hesitancy: The development of a survey tool.||Childhood vaccines are important for my child’s health.||The Working Group developed a compendium of three different types of survey questions: core closed questions; Likert scale questions; and a set of open ended questions.||The questions identified do not address all the determinants in the Vaccine Hesitancy Matrix.|
|Pediatric provider vaccine hesitancy: An under-recognized obstacle to immunizing children.||Do you believe that standard immunizations are safe?||This is the first study to describe vaccine attitudes among pediatric providers attending AAP-sponsored immunization conferences.||The study population includes pediatric providers who attended AAP-sponsored conferences from a limited geographical area, and therefore the data may not be generalizable to all pediatric providers.|
|Understanding Vaccine Hesitancy in Canada: Results of a Consultation Study by the Canadian Immunization Research Network.||How prepared are you to effectively provide information about risks and benefits of vaccination?||Our findings indicate that the majority of participants—both vaccine experts and front-line vaccine providers—have the perception that vaccine rates have been declining and consider vaccine hesitancy an important issue to address in Canada.||By design, the results|
reported here represent the opinions of only some non-randomly selected key opinion leaders.
|The State of Vaccine Confidence 2016: Global Insights Through a 67-Country Survey.||Vaccines are compatible|
with my religious beliefs.
|We find that vaccine safety sentiment is more negative in the European and the Western Pacific regions,|
where nine of the ten least confident countries are located.
|A limitation of this survey is its generality of the survey which does not reveal whether the attitudes are related to specific vaccine(s) which an individual may have concerns about.|
|Development and Validation of the Human Papillomavirus Attitudes and Beliefs Scale in a National Canadian Sample.||I feel that… the HPV vaccine will protect my son’s sexual health.||The HABS is available in both English and French for assessing HPV attitudes and beliefs.||The HABS does not capture all attitudinal items.|
|Validation of the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale.||Immunizing children is harmful and this fact is covered up.||Income, parental age, healthcare provider recommendation, and vaccine conspiracy beliefs emerged as significant predictors of parents’ willingness to vaccinate their child.||Using preselected items to develop this scale may have increased the likelihood of producing a one-dimensional scale.|
|Understanding the Dimensions of Anti-Vaccination Attitudes: the Vaccination Attitudes Examination (VAX) Scale.||Vaccines can cause unforeseen problems in children.||The VAX scale is a short and simple tool that has demonstrated significant associations with vaccination behaviors and intentions.||No study limitation was reported by the authors of this study.|
|Explanations for Not Receiving the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine: An Ontario Canada Based Survey.||Why didn’t you get the seasonal flu vaccine in the last flu season?||The most cited explanation given for not receiving the seasonal influenza vaccine is related to the perceived importance of vaccination (or lack thereof).||Due to the nature of our data collection, we were unable to continue to sample until reaching saturation of themes.|
|Beyond confidence: Development of a measure assessing the 5C psychological antecedents of vaccination.||For me, it is inconvenient to receive vaccinations.||The 5C scale now offers a psychologically sound and validated measure to be used for regular global monitoring of the psychological antecedents of vaccination behavior.||A limitation of this work is that the three studies, similar to the construction studies of all other existing measures, only assess concurrent validity and not predictive validity.|
|Vaccination hesitancy in the antenatal period: a cross-sectional survey.||All things considered, how much do you trust your child’s doctor?||There was no difference detected in vaccination timeliness of babies of first-time mothers and experienced mothers nor between those who considered themselves ‘not at all hesitant’ and others.||We were unable to calculate summary hesitancy and decisional conflict measures.|
|Paula M. Frew|
|Development of a US trust measure to assess and monitor parental confidence in the vaccine system.||Vaccines recommended for young children are safe.||[The authors] developed a parsimonious, relevant eight-item index that was able to assess vaccine confidence with a highly acceptable internal validity score.||Several sources of bias limit the ability of self-reported vaccination decisions to represent actual vaccination behavior, including recall, response, and social desirability bias.|
|Reasons for non-vaccination: Parental vaccine hesitancy and the childhood influenza vaccination school pilot programme in England||‘‘We would be grateful if you could tell us|
why you decided not to vaccinate your child as part of the school
|The majority of parents interviewed illustrated a lack of perceived need for the influenza vaccine for children.||Study limitations include the possibility of sample bias, since those that took part in our study might have different views to that of the general population.|
|A survey instrument for measuring vaccine acceptance.||My right to consent to medical treatment means that vaccinations should always be voluntary.||Our results indicate that vaccine acceptance is substantially eroded by conspiratorial thinking and is modestly reduced by political conservatism.||No study limitation was reported by the authors of this study.|
|Reliability and validity of a survey to identify vaccine hesitancy among parents in Changxing county, Zhejiang province.||It is better for my child to develop immunity by getting sick than|
|We found the concern of the vaccine efficacy was associated with under immunization,|
which was similar to the previous studies in other settings.
|Our results might|
reflect current perceptions of immunizations other than perceptions
at the time they were making immunization decisions,
|The prevalence of vaccine hesitancy and skipping MMR vaccine due to autism thoughts in Saudi Arabia.||Do you think that your child received too many vaccines?||Vaccination hesitant parents showed a significantly high probability that they think that healthy children don’t need to be vaccinated with MMR, and that the risk of MMR vaccine outweighs the benefit.||One of the limitations of this study was using self-reported questionnaires for collecting data which were prone to recall bias.|
|Measuring vaccine hesitancy, confidence, trust and flu vaccine uptake: Results of a national survey of White and African American adults.||Thinking specifically about the flu vaccine, do you think the flu vaccine is necessary?||In this article, we can distinguish between general vaccine hesitancy and vaccine hesitancy specific to the flu vaccine.||No study limitation was reported by the authors of this study.|
|Towards a further understanding of measles vaccine hesitancy in Khartoum state, Sudan: A qualitative study.||Do you think measles vaccine hesitancy exists in Sudan? Why?||The majority of the participants agreed that the main contextual determinant is the presence of people (parents/guardians) who can be qualified as “anti-vaccination”; they mostly belong to religious groups, and they often refuse all vaccines.||This study’s findings should be interpreted within the context of the study ’s participants and|
|Social and cultural construction processes involved in HPV vaccine hesitancy among Chinese women: a qualitative study.||How do you perceive the dangers of HPV?||Only a few participants knew that HPV could lead to genital warts and that HPV vaccination can also help prevent genital warts.||Our findings mostly reflect the perceptions and decision-making process of women who belong to a relatively high socioeconomic status.|
|Van Buynder, P.G.|
|Antigen specific vaccine hesitancy in pregnancy.||During which trimester of this pregnancy did you receive the flu vaccine?||One out of every two pregnant women surveyed accessed a pertussis vaccine booster but not an influenza vaccine.||No study limitation was reported by the authors of this study.|
|Development of a valid and reliable scale to assess parents’ beliefs and attitudes about childhood vaccines and their association with vaccination uptake and delay in Ghana.||People in this community have expressed concerns that a child might have a serious side effect from a vaccination.||Our study is the first to document development of a valid and reliable scale to assess caregiver attitudes and beliefs towards vaccination in a low- or middle- income country setting and show a high level of association of the scale score with child’s vaccination status.||The survey was cross-sectional, so information for the scale and for vaccination status was collected at the same time; thus, our criterion validity was limited to concurrent rather than predictive validity.|
|Development and Validation of Parental Vaccine Attitudes Scale for Use in Low-income Setting.||I should be allowed to selectively choose|
the vaccines which I believe my child
|The four-item scale addressing parental attitude toward vaccine-preventable disease salience and community benefit is sufficiently reliable, and it can predict vaccine acceptance among parents in low-income settings.||One of the limitations of this study is validation of the tool|
only in Pakistan, rather than in several developing countries.
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Oduwole, E.O.; Pienaar, E.D.; Mahomed, H.; Wiysonge, C.S. Overview of Tools and Measures Investigating Vaccine Hesitancy in a Ten Year Period: A Scoping Review. Vaccines 2022, 10, 1198. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081198
Oduwole EO, Pienaar ED, Mahomed H, Wiysonge CS. Overview of Tools and Measures Investigating Vaccine Hesitancy in a Ten Year Period: A Scoping Review. Vaccines. 2022; 10(8):1198. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081198Chicago/Turabian Style
Oduwole, Elizabeth O., Elizabeth D. Pienaar, Hassan Mahomed, and Charles S. Wiysonge. 2022. "Overview of Tools and Measures Investigating Vaccine Hesitancy in a Ten Year Period: A Scoping Review" Vaccines 10, no. 8: 1198. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10081198