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Article

Assessment of COVID-19 Fear in Five European Countries before Mass Vaccination and Key Predictors among Nurses and Nursing Students

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Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Hellenic Mediterranean University, 714 10 Crete, Greece
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Clinical Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Nursing, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 157 72 Athens, Greece
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Clinic of Social and Family Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Crete, 700 13 Crete, Greece
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Department of Healthcare, Faculty of Health, University of Vlora, 9401 Vlora, Albania
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Department of Psychology and Social Sciences, Frederick University, Nicosia 3080, Cyprus
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Department of Nursing, Frederick University, Nicosia 3080, Cyprus
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IMCU Group, Faculty of Physiotherapy and Nursing, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 45004 Toledo, Spain
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Department of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, 701 03 Ostrava, Czech Republic
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Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41121 Reggio Emilia, Italy
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Degree Course in Nursing, Azienda USL-IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, 41121 Reggio Emilia, Italy
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Faculty of Nursing, AAB College, P.O. Box 10000 Pristina, Kosovo
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Research Centre of Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Vlora, 9401 Vlora, Albania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Casuccio
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010098
Received: 26 November 2021 / Revised: 2 January 2022 / Accepted: 5 January 2022 / Published: 10 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue COVID-19 Vaccination, Role of Vaccines and Global Health)
Background: Levels of fear have increased since the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak. The absence of a safe and effective vaccine for mass-vaccination deteriorates this situation, which has a significant impact on mental health. This study aimed to assess the feelings of fear among nurses and nursing students in five European countries. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in five European countries (Greece, Albania, Cyprus, Spain, and Kosovo) before the start of mass vaccination in Europe. Data collection was conducted in December 2020–January 2021 using an online questionnaire for nursing students and professional nurses. Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) was used for measuring levels of fear. IBM SPSS version 21.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The study population included 1135 nurses and 1920 nursing students from Kosovo (n = 1085), Spain (n = 663), Greece (n = 534), Albania (n = 529), and Cyprus (n = 244). According to multivariable analysis, females (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.89–3.15), married (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.24–1.48), nurses (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.28–1.45) and those with a chronic disease (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.11–1.62) were more fearful of COVID-19. Conclusions: It is important to decrease fear in the population of nurses who are at the frontlines of the pandemic. The provision of appropriate education and training activities for nurses and students to manage their stress levels is of high importance. Future studies should focus on levels of fear after the administration of several safe and effective vaccines worldwide. View Full-Text
Keywords: nurses; nursing students; COVID-19; fear; FCV-19S nurses; nursing students; COVID-19; fear; FCV-19S
MDPI and ACS Style

Patelarou, E.; Galanis, P.; Mechili, E.A.; Argyriadi, A.; Argyriadis, A.; Asimakopoulou, E.; Kicaj, E.; Bucaj, J.; Carmona-Torres, J.M.; Cobo-Cuenca, A.I.; Doležel, J.; Finotto, S.; Jarošová, D.; Kalokairinou, A.; Mecugni, D.; Pulomenaj, V.; Malaj, K.; Sopjani, I.; Zahaj, M.; Patelarou, A. Assessment of COVID-19 Fear in Five European Countries before Mass Vaccination and Key Predictors among Nurses and Nursing Students. Vaccines 2022, 10, 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010098

AMA Style

Patelarou E, Galanis P, Mechili EA, Argyriadi A, Argyriadis A, Asimakopoulou E, Kicaj E, Bucaj J, Carmona-Torres JM, Cobo-Cuenca AI, Doležel J, Finotto S, Jarošová D, Kalokairinou A, Mecugni D, Pulomenaj V, Malaj K, Sopjani I, Zahaj M, Patelarou A. Assessment of COVID-19 Fear in Five European Countries before Mass Vaccination and Key Predictors among Nurses and Nursing Students. Vaccines. 2022; 10(1):98. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010098

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patelarou, Evridiki, Petros Galanis, Enkeleint A. Mechili, Agathi Argyriadi, Alexandros Argyriadis, Evanthia Asimakopoulou, Emirjona Kicaj, Jorgjia Bucaj, Juan M. Carmona-Torres, Ana I. Cobo-Cuenca, Jakub Doležel, Stefano Finotto, Darja Jarošová, Athina Kalokairinou, Daniela Mecugni, Velide Pulomenaj, Krenar Malaj, Idriz Sopjani, Majlinda Zahaj, and Athina Patelarou. 2022. "Assessment of COVID-19 Fear in Five European Countries before Mass Vaccination and Key Predictors among Nurses and Nursing Students" Vaccines 10, no. 1: 98. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010098

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