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Article

Safety and Immunogenicity of the Third Booster Dose with Inactivated, Viral Vector, and mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in Fully Immunized Healthy Adults with Inactivated Vaccine

1
Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2
Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeleton Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3
The Royal Society of Thailand (FRS(T)), Sanam Sueapa, Dusit, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Baldo
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010086
Received: 3 December 2021 / Revised: 31 December 2021 / Accepted: 4 January 2022 / Published: 6 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccination Strategies for COVID-19)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a severe healthcare problem worldwide since the first outbreak in late December 2019. Currently, the COVID-19 vaccine has been used in many countries, but it is still unable to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, despite patients receiving full vaccination doses. Therefore, we aimed to appraise the booster effect of the different platforms of vaccines, including inactivated vaccine (BBIBP), viral vector vaccine (AZD122), and mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2), in healthy adults who received the full dose of inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac). The booster dose was safe with no serious adverse events. Moreover, the immunogenicity indicated that the booster dose with viral vector and mRNA vaccine achieved a significant proportion of Ig anti-receptor binding domain (RBD), IgG anti-RBD, and IgA anti-S1 booster response. In contrast, inactivated vaccine achieved a lower booster response than others. Consequently, the neutralization activity of vaccinated serum had a high inhibition of over 90% against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and their variants (B.1.1.7–alpha, B.1.351–beta, and B.1.617.2–delta). In addition, IgG anti-nucleocapsid was observed only among the group that received the BBIBP booster. Our study found a significant increase in levels of IFN-ɣ secreting T-cell response after the additional viral vector or mRNA booster vaccination. This study showed that administration with either viral vector (AZD1222) or mRNA (BNT162b2) boosters in individuals with a history of two doses of inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac) obtained great immunogenicity with acceptable adverse events. View Full-Text
Keywords: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); booster; third dose; inactivated vaccine; viral vector vaccine; mRNA vaccine; clinical trial severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); booster; third dose; inactivated vaccine; viral vector vaccine; mRNA vaccine; clinical trial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kanokudom, S.; Assawakosri, S.; Suntronwong, N.; Auphimai, C.; Nilyanimit, P.; Vichaiwattana, P.; Thongmee, T.; Yorsaeng, R.; Srimuan, D.; Thatsanatorn, T.; Klinfueng, S.; Sudhinaraset, N.; Wanlapakorn, N.; Honsawek, S.; Poovorawan, Y. Safety and Immunogenicity of the Third Booster Dose with Inactivated, Viral Vector, and mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in Fully Immunized Healthy Adults with Inactivated Vaccine. Vaccines 2022, 10, 86. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010086

AMA Style

Kanokudom S, Assawakosri S, Suntronwong N, Auphimai C, Nilyanimit P, Vichaiwattana P, Thongmee T, Yorsaeng R, Srimuan D, Thatsanatorn T, Klinfueng S, Sudhinaraset N, Wanlapakorn N, Honsawek S, Poovorawan Y. Safety and Immunogenicity of the Third Booster Dose with Inactivated, Viral Vector, and mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in Fully Immunized Healthy Adults with Inactivated Vaccine. Vaccines. 2022; 10(1):86. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010086

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kanokudom, Sitthichai, Suvichada Assawakosri, Nungruthai Suntronwong, Chompoonut Auphimai, Pornjarim Nilyanimit, Preeyaporn Vichaiwattana, Thanunrat Thongmee, Ritthideach Yorsaeng, Donchida Srimuan, Thaksaporn Thatsanatorn, Sirapa Klinfueng, Natthinee Sudhinaraset, Nasamon Wanlapakorn, Sittisak Honsawek, and Yong Poovorawan. 2022. "Safety and Immunogenicity of the Third Booster Dose with Inactivated, Viral Vector, and mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines in Fully Immunized Healthy Adults with Inactivated Vaccine" Vaccines 10, no. 1: 86. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010086

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