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Review

Plant-Based Vaccines: Antigen Design, Diversity, and Strategies for High Level Production

1
Immunology and Vaccinology Group, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, Instituto PoliItécnico Nacional 195, Playa Palo de Santa Rita Sur, La Paz 23096, BCS, Mexico
2
CONACYT—Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR), Instituto Politécnico Nacional 195, Playa Palo de Santa Rita Sur, La Paz 23096, BCS, Mexico
3
Escuela de Veterinaria, Universidad De La Salle Bajío, Avenida Universidad 602, Lomas del Campestre, Leon 37150, GTO, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kathleen Hefferon and Srividhya Venkataraman
Vaccines 2022, 10(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010100
Received: 12 November 2021 / Revised: 25 December 2021 / Accepted: 1 January 2022 / Published: 10 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Vaccines—A Powerhouse for Global Health 2.0)
Vaccines for human use have conventionally been developed by the production of (1) microbial pathogens in eggs or mammalian cells that are then inactivated, or (2) by the production of pathogen proteins in mammalian and insect cells that are purified for vaccine formulation, as well as, more recently, (3) by using RNA or DNA fragments from pathogens. Another approach for recombinant antigen production in the last three decades has been the use of plants as biofactories. Only have few plant-produced vaccines been evaluated in clinical trials to fight against diseases, of which COVID-19 vaccines are the most recent to be FDA approved. In silico tools have accelerated vaccine design, which, combined with transitory antigen expression in plants, has led to the testing of promising prototypes in pre-clinical and clinical trials. Therefore, this review deals with a description of immunoinformatic tools and plant genetic engineering technologies used for antigen design (virus-like particles (VLP), subunit vaccines, VLP chimeras) and the main strategies for high antigen production levels. These key topics for plant-made vaccine development are discussed and perspectives are provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: viral vectors; influenza; virus-like particles; virus; COVID 19; antigens; biopharming viral vectors; influenza; virus-like particles; virus; COVID 19; antigens; biopharming
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MDPI and ACS Style

Monreal-Escalante, E.; Ramos-Vega, A.; Angulo, C.; Bañuelos-Hernández, B. Plant-Based Vaccines: Antigen Design, Diversity, and Strategies for High Level Production. Vaccines 2022, 10, 100. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010100

AMA Style

Monreal-Escalante E, Ramos-Vega A, Angulo C, Bañuelos-Hernández B. Plant-Based Vaccines: Antigen Design, Diversity, and Strategies for High Level Production. Vaccines. 2022; 10(1):100. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010100

Chicago/Turabian Style

Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth, Abel Ramos-Vega, Carlos Angulo, and Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández. 2022. "Plant-Based Vaccines: Antigen Design, Diversity, and Strategies for High Level Production" Vaccines 10, no. 1: 100. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10010100

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