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Open AccessArticle

Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidant Activity of Hidrox® in Rotenone-Induced Parkinson’s Disease in Mice

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Viale Ferdinando Stagno D’Alcontres, 31, 98166 Messina, Italy
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia, 89, 95123 Catania, Italy
Oliphenol LLC., 26225 Eden Landing Road, Unit C, Hayward, CA 94545, USA
Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Rosalba Siracusa and Maria Scuto are the co-first authors.
Salvatore Cuzzocrea and Vittorio Calabrese shared senior authorship.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(9), 824;
Received: 3 July 2020 / Revised: 12 August 2020 / Accepted: 26 August 2020 / Published: 3 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants for Modulating the Aging Processes)
Background: In developed countries, the extension of human life is increasingly accompanied by a progressive increase in neurodegenerative diseases, most of which do not yet have effective therapy but only symptomatic treatments. In recent years, plant polyphenols have aroused considerable interest in the scientific community. The mechanisms currently hypothesized for the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the main component of Hidrox® (HD), has been shown to have some of the highest free radical evacuation and anti-inflammatory activities. Here we wanted to study the role of HD on the neurobiological and behavioral alterations induced by rotenone. Methods: A study was conducted in which mice received HD (10 mg/kg, i.p.) concomitantly with rotenone (5 mg/kg, o.s.) for 28 days. Results: Locomotor activity, catalepsy, histological damage and several characteristic markers of the PD, such as the dopamine transporter (DAT) content, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and accumulation of α-synuclein, have been evaluated. Moreover, we observed the effects of HD on oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis and inflammasomes. Taken together, the results obtained highlight HD’s ability to reduce the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the damage associated with it by counteracting the three main mechanisms of PD pathogenesis. Conclusion: HD is subject to fewer regulations than traditional drugs to improve patients’ brain health and could represent a promising nutraceutical choice to prevent PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; hydroxytyrosol; neurodegenerative disease; neuroinflammation polyphenols; hydroxytyrosol; neurodegenerative disease; neuroinflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Siracusa, R.; Scuto, M.; Fusco, R.; Trovato, A.; Ontario, M.L.; Crea, R.; Di Paola, R.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Calabrese, V. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidant Activity of Hidrox® in Rotenone-Induced Parkinson’s Disease in Mice. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 824.

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