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Genetically Encoded Tools for Research of Cell Signaling and Metabolism under Brain Hypoxia

1
Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, 117997 Moscow, Russia
2
Center for Precision Genome Editing and Genetic Technologies for Biomedicine, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 117997 Moscow, Russia
3
Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, 119334 Moscow, Russia
4
Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow, Russia
5
Institute for Cardiovascular Physiology, Georg August University Göttingen, D-37073 Göttingen, Germany
6
Federal Center for Cerebrovascular Pathology and Stroke, 117997 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(6), 516; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9060516
Received: 2 May 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 6 June 2020 / Published: 11 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Brain)
Hypoxia is characterized by low oxygen content in the tissues. The central nervous system (CNS) is highly vulnerable to a lack of oxygen. Prolonged hypoxia leads to the death of brain cells, which underlies the development of many pathological conditions. Despite the relevance of the topic, different approaches used to study the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia have many limitations. One promising lead is the use of various genetically encoded tools that allow for the observation of intracellular parameters in living systems. In the first part of this review, we provide the classification of oxygen/hypoxia reporters as well as describe other genetically encoded reporters for various metabolic and redox parameters that could be implemented in hypoxia studies. In the second part, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the primary hypoxia model systems and highlight inspiring examples of research in which these experimental settings were combined with genetically encoded reporters. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxygen; hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF); genetically encoded biosensors; fluorescent proteins; luciferase oxygen; hypoxia; hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF); genetically encoded biosensors; fluorescent proteins; luciferase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kostyuk, A.I.; Kokova, A.D.; Podgorny, O.V.; Kelmanson, I.V.; Fetisova, E.S.; Belousov, V.V.; Bilan, D.S. Genetically Encoded Tools for Research of Cell Signaling and Metabolism under Brain Hypoxia. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 516.

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