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Open AccessArticle

Soluble Phenolic Composition Tailored by Germination Conditions Accompany Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Wheat

1
Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), Jose Antonio Novais, 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Agricultural Technological Institute of Castile and Leon (ITACyL), Government of Castile and Leon. Ctra. de Burgos Km.119, Finca Zamadueñas, 47071 Valladolid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(5), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050426
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 11 May 2020 / Accepted: 12 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Designing the Antioxidant Properties of Low-Processed Food)
Knowledge on the specific variation in the phenolic composition of wheat defined by germination conditions and its relationship with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of sprouts would be useful to improve the functional value of wheat-derived products. Variation in soluble phenolic composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of wheat was examined in a range of germination temperature (12–21 °C) and time (1–7 d). Response surface methodology was applied for building lineal and quadratic models to find optimal germination conditions to improve nutraceutical value of wheat sprouts using the desirability (D) function. Phenolics were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. In vitro biochemical methods and lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were used to determine antiradical and anti-inflammatory activities of wheat sprouts. Accumulation of soluble phenolic acids, flavone C-glycosides and lignans in sprouts was positively influenced by germination temperature and time. Increased concentration of individual polyphenols was directly associated with improved ability of sprouts for radical scavenging and reduction of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 in macrophages. Optimal desirability (D = 0.89) for improved nutraceutical value of wheat sprouts was achieved at 21 °C for 7 d. This information would be useful for food industry aiming at producing wheat-based products with better nutritional and healthy properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant activity; germination; immunomodulation; nutraceutical value; optimization; phenolic compounds; wheat antioxidant activity; germination; immunomodulation; nutraceutical value; optimization; phenolic compounds; wheat
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tomé-Sánchez, I.; Martín-Diana, A.B.; Peñas, E.; Bautista-Expósito, S.; Frias, J.; Rico, D.; González-Maillo, L.; Martinez-Villaluenga, C. Soluble Phenolic Composition Tailored by Germination Conditions Accompany Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Wheat. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 426. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050426

AMA Style

Tomé-Sánchez I, Martín-Diana AB, Peñas E, Bautista-Expósito S, Frias J, Rico D, González-Maillo L, Martinez-Villaluenga C. Soluble Phenolic Composition Tailored by Germination Conditions Accompany Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Wheat. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(5):426. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050426

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tomé-Sánchez, Irene; Martín-Diana, Ana B.; Peñas, Elena; Bautista-Expósito, Sara; Frias, Juana; Rico, Daniel; González-Maillo, Lorena; Martinez-Villaluenga, Cristina. 2020. "Soluble Phenolic Composition Tailored by Germination Conditions Accompany Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Wheat" Antioxidants 9, no. 5: 426. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9050426

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