Bisphenol A (BPA) is a non-persistent anthropic and environmentally ubiquitous compound widely employed and detected in many consumer products and food items; thus, human exposure is prolonged. Over the last ten years, many studies have examined the underlying molecular mechanisms of BPA toxicity and revealed links among BPA-induced oxidative stress, male and female reproductive defects, and human disease. Because of its hormone-like feature, BPA shows tissue effects on specific hormone receptors in target cells, triggering noxious cellular responses associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. As a metabolic and endocrine disruptor, BPA impairs redox homeostasis via the increase of oxidative mediators and the reduction of antioxidant enzymes, causing mitochondrial dysfunction, alteration in cell signaling pathways, and induction of apoptosis. This review aims to examine the scenery of the current BPA literature on understanding how the induction of oxidative stress can be considered the “fil rouge” of BPA’s toxic mechanisms of action with pleiotropic outcomes on reproduction. Here, we focus on the protective effects of five classes of antioxidants—vitamins and co-factors, natural products (herbals and phytochemicals), melatonin, selenium, and methyl donors (used alone or in combination)—that have been found useful to counteract BPA toxicity in male and female reproductive functions.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited