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Article

Wild and Cultivated Centaurea raphanina subsp. mixta: A Valuable Source of Bioactive Compounds

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Department of Agriculture Crop Production and Rural Environment, University of Thessaly, Fytokou Street, 38446 N. Ionia, Greece
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Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
3
Department of Plant Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, PA 16802, USA
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Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, Lemesos 3603, Cyprus
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Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković”-National Institute of Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(4), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040314
Received: 5 April 2020 / Revised: 12 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
Centaurea raphanina subsp. mixta (DC.) Runemark is a wild edible species endemic to Greece. This study evaluated the chemical composition and bioactive properties of wild and cultivated C. raphanina subsp. mixta plants. Wild plants had higher nutritional value than cultivated ones, whereas cultivated plants contained more tocopherols. Glucose and sucrose were higher in cultivated plants and trehalose in wild ones. Oxalic and total organic acids were detected in higher amounts in cultivated samples. The main fatty acids were α-linolenic, linoleic and palmitic acid, while wild plants were richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Two pinocembrin derivatives were the main phenolic compounds being detected in higher amounts in wild plants. Regarding the antioxidant activity, wild and cultivated plants were more effective in the oxidative haemolysis (OxHLIA) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assays, respectively. Moreover, both extracts showed moderate cytotoxicity in non-tumor cell lines (PLP2), while cultivated plants were more effective against cervical carcinoma (HeLa), breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and non-small lung cancer (NCI-H460) cell lines. Finally, wild plants showed higher antimicrobial activity than cultivated plants against specific pathogens. In conclusion, the cultivation of C. raphanina subsp. mixta showed promising results in terms of tocopherols content and antiproliferative effects, however further research is needed to decrease oxalic acid content. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial activities; antioxidant activity; cytotoxic effects; organic acids; phenolic compounds antimicrobial activities; antioxidant activity; cytotoxic effects; organic acids; phenolic compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Petropoulos, S.A.; Fernandes, Â.; Dias, M.I.; Pereira, C.; Calhelha, R.; Di Gioia, F.; Tzortzakis, N.; Ivanov, M.; Sokovic, M.; Barros, L.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R. Wild and Cultivated Centaurea raphanina subsp. mixta: A Valuable Source of Bioactive Compounds. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 314. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040314

AMA Style

Petropoulos SA, Fernandes Â, Dias MI, Pereira C, Calhelha R, Di Gioia F, Tzortzakis N, Ivanov M, Sokovic M, Barros L, Ferreira ICFR. Wild and Cultivated Centaurea raphanina subsp. mixta: A Valuable Source of Bioactive Compounds. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(4):314. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040314

Chicago/Turabian Style

Petropoulos, Spyridon A., Ângela Fernandes, Maria I. Dias, Carla Pereira, Ricardo Calhelha, Francesco Di Gioia, Nikolaos Tzortzakis, Marija Ivanov, Marina Sokovic, Lillian Barros, and Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira 2020. "Wild and Cultivated Centaurea raphanina subsp. mixta: A Valuable Source of Bioactive Compounds" Antioxidants 9, no. 4: 314. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9040314

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