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Review

Appropriate Technologies to Accompany Sunscreens in the Battle Against Ultraviolet, Superoxide, and Singlet Oxygen

Insight Analysis Consulting, Madison, AL 35758, USA
Antioxidants 2020, 9(11), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111091
Received: 19 October 2020 / Revised: 31 October 2020 / Accepted: 4 November 2020 / Published: 6 November 2020
The interaction of ultraviolet radiation with biological matter results in direct damage such as pyrimidine dimers in DNA. It also results in indirect damage provoked by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) catalyzed by photosensitizers. Photosensitizers can be endogenous (e.g., tryptophan) or exogenous (e.g., TiO2 and other photostable UVA sunscreens). Direct damage triggers an inflammatory response and the oxidative and proteolytic bursts that characterize its onset. The inflammatory reaction multiplies the effects of one single photon. Indirect damage, such as the peroxidative cascade in membrane lipids, can extend to thousands of molecular modifications per absorbed photon. Sunscreens should therefore be formulated in the presence of appropriate antioxidants. Superoxide and singlet oxygen are the main ROS that need to be tackled: this review describes some of the molecular, biochemical, cellular, and clinical consequences of exposure to UV radiation as well as some results associated with scavengers and quenchers of superoxide and singlet oxygen, as well as with inhibitors of singlet oxygen production. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultraviolet; superoxide; singlet oxygen; cell blebbing; skin aging; peroxidative cascade; antioxidants ultraviolet; superoxide; singlet oxygen; cell blebbing; skin aging; peroxidative cascade; antioxidants
MDPI and ACS Style

Giacomoni, P.U. Appropriate Technologies to Accompany Sunscreens in the Battle Against Ultraviolet, Superoxide, and Singlet Oxygen. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 1091. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111091

AMA Style

Giacomoni PU. Appropriate Technologies to Accompany Sunscreens in the Battle Against Ultraviolet, Superoxide, and Singlet Oxygen. Antioxidants. 2020; 9(11):1091. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111091

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giacomoni, Paolo U. 2020. "Appropriate Technologies to Accompany Sunscreens in the Battle Against Ultraviolet, Superoxide, and Singlet Oxygen" Antioxidants 9, no. 11: 1091. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9111091

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