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Therapeutic Hypothermia Improves Hind Limb Motor Outcome and Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Damage in the Lumbar Spinal Cord Following Cardiac Arrest

1
Department of Biomedical Science, Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon 24252, Korea
2
Department of Neurobiology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
3
Bio-Safety Research Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 54596, Korea
4
Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
5
Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
6
Department of Anatomy, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 38066, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors contributed equally to this work.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010038
Received: 11 November 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 31 December 2019 / Published: 1 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
Hypothermia enhances outcomes of patients after resuscitation after cardiac arrest (CA). However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated effects of hypothermic therapy on neuronal damage/death, microglial activation, and changes of endogenous antioxidants in the anterior horn in the lumbar spinal cord in a rat model of asphyxial CA (ACA). A total of 77 adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into five groups: normal, sham ACA plus (+) normothermia, ACA + normothermia, sham ACA + hypothermia, and ACA + hypothermia. ACA was induced for 5 min by injecting vecuronium bromide. Therapeutic hypothermia was applied after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) via rapid cooling with isopropyl alcohol wipes, which was maintained at 33 ± 0.5 °C for 4 h. Normothermia groups were maintained at 37 ± 0.2 °C for 4 h. Neuronal protection, microgliosis, oxidative stress, and changes of endogenous antioxidants were evaluated at 12 h, 1 day, and 2 days after ROSC following ACA. ACA resulted in neuronal damage from 12 h after ROSC and evoked obvious degeneration/loss of spinal neurons in the ventral horn at 1 day after ACA, showing motor deficit of the hind limb. In addition, ACA resulted in a gradual increase in microgliosis with time after ACA. Therapeutic hypothermia significantly reduced neuronal loss and attenuated hind limb dysfunction, showing that hypothermia significantly attenuated microgliosis. Furthermore, hypothermia significantly suppressed ACA-induced increases of superoxide anion production and 8-hydroxyguanine expression, and significantly increased superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), SOD2, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Taken together, hypothermic therapy was found to have a substantial impact on changes in ACA-induced microglia activation, oxidative stress factors, and antioxidant enzymes in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord, which closely correlate with neuronal protection and neurological performance after ACA. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; asphyxial cardiac arrest; hypothermia; lumbar spinal cord; motor neurons; neuroprotection; oxidative stress antioxidants; asphyxial cardiac arrest; hypothermia; lumbar spinal cord; motor neurons; neuroprotection; oxidative stress
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Ahn, J.H.; Lee, T.-K.; Kim, B.; Lee, J.-C.; Tae, H.-J.; Cho, J.H.; Park, Y.; Shin, M.C.; Ohk, T.G.; Park, C.W.; Cho, J.H.; Hong, S.; Park, J.H.; Choi, S.Y.; Won, M.-H. Therapeutic Hypothermia Improves Hind Limb Motor Outcome and Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Damage in the Lumbar Spinal Cord Following Cardiac Arrest. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 38.

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