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Open AccessArticle

Phenolic Compounds and the Anti-Atherogenic Effect of Bee Bread in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

1
Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu 20400, Terengganu, Malaysia
3
Department of Anatomy, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
4
Unit of Integrative Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010033
Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 26 December 2019 / Accepted: 26 December 2019 / Published: 30 December 2019
This study was undertaken to determine the phenolic compounds and the anti-atherogenic effect of bee bread in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The presence of phenolic compounds in bee bread was determined by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Thirty-two male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups, (n = 8/group); i.e., Normal (N), HFD (high-fat diet), HFD + BB (high-fat diet and 0.5 g/kg/day bee bread), and HFD + O (high-fat diet and 10 mg/kg/day orlistat) groups. After 6 weeks of the experiment, rats were sacrificed. Five phenolic compounds were identified in bee bread; namely, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, apigenin, and isorhamnetin. Bee bread significantly reduced Lee obesity index and levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity, atherogenic index, oxidised-LDL (oxLDL), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and significantly increased aortic antioxidant activities, such as those of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Adipocyte sizes were found to be smaller in the HFD + BB group compared to the N group, and en face aortas showed an absence of atherosclerotic plaque in rats supplemented with bee bread. These changes might suggest an anti-atherogenic effect of bee bread in HFD-induced obese rats via its antioxidant and hypocholesterolaemic properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: bee bread; obese; anti-atherogenic; phenolic compounds bee bread; obese; anti-atherogenic; phenolic compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Othman, Z.A.; Wan Ghazali, W.S.; Noordin, L.; Mohd. Yusof, N.A.; Mohamed, M. Phenolic Compounds and the Anti-Atherogenic Effect of Bee Bread in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 33.

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