Next Article in Journal
The Inhibitory Effects of Slow-Releasing Hydrogen Sulfide Donors in the Mechanical Allodynia, Grip Strength Deficits, and Depressive-Like Behaviors Associated with Chronic Osteoarthritis Pain
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Acacia Polyphenol Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice Liver and Skeletal Muscle
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Curcumin Nanoparticles on Drug-Induced Acute Myocardial Infarction in Diabetic Rats
Open AccessReview

Exposure to Toxic Heavy Metals Can Influence Homocysteine Metabolism?

1
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
2
Department of Health Promotion Sciences Maternal and Infantile Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialities “Giuseppe D’Alessandro”, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
3
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 70124 Bari, Italy
4
Department of Medical Science, Surgical Science and advanced Technologies “G.F, Ingrassia”, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
5
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2020, 9(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010030
Received: 21 November 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 28 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Vascular Disease )
Background: Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid whose metabolism is activated in two pathways: remethylation to methionine, which requires folate and vitamin B12, and transsulfuration to cystathionine, which needs pyridoxal-5’-phosphate. High homocysteine level increases the risk of developing heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular diseases, and cognitive impairment. Some evidence showed that exposure to these metals increased plasma homocysteine levels. Methods: A systematic review was carried out to clarify the relationship between homocysteine blood levels and exposure to toxic heavy metals (Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, and Chromium). Results: The results of this systematic review indicate that exposure to Pb, Cr, Cd, and Hg is connected with nonphysiological homocysteine levels or vitamin B12 and folate serum concentrations. Conclusions: These findings reinforce the importance of involvement in exposure to heavy metals in homocysteine metabolism. This supports the role of blood metals as potential upstream modifiable risk factors to prevent the development of other established risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: methionine; MTHFR; vitamin B6; vitamin B12; folate; lead; chromium; cadmium; mercury methionine; MTHFR; vitamin B6; vitamin B12; folate; lead; chromium; cadmium; mercury
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ledda, C.; Cannizzaro, E.; Lovreglio, P.; Vitale, E.; Stufano, A.; Montana, A.; Li Volti, G.; Rapisarda, V. Exposure to Toxic Heavy Metals Can Influence Homocysteine Metabolism? Antioxidants 2020, 9, 30.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop