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Zeaxanthin: Metabolism, Properties, and Antioxidant Protection of Eyes, Heart, Liver, and Skin

1
Biochemistry Department, University of Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 2060, Costa Rica
2
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(9), 390; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8090390
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 5 September 2019 / Accepted: 7 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
Zeaxanthin, a non-provitamin A carotenoid that belongs to the xanthophyll family, has been less studied than its isomer lutein. However, zeaxanthin has also been shown to have a number of beneficial effects for human health due to its ability to quench free radicals, exert antioxidant effects, as well as decrease inflammation. It is the purpose of this review to discuss the metabolism of zeaxanthin, including digestion, absorption, transport, and uptake by tissues, as well as the dietary or other factors which affect zeaxanthin bioavailability. In addition, this review also focuses on specific effects of this carotenoid on eye, skin, liver, and cardiovascular health. Data derived from human interventions, animal models of research, and in vitro and cell studies are discussed in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: zeaxanthin; bioavailability; transport; antioxidant; age-related macular degeneration; liver health; atherosclerosis; inflammation zeaxanthin; bioavailability; transport; antioxidant; age-related macular degeneration; liver health; atherosclerosis; inflammation
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Murillo, A.G.; Hu, S.; Fernandez, M.L. Zeaxanthin: Metabolism, Properties, and Antioxidant Protection of Eyes, Heart, Liver, and Skin. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 390.

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