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Role of Gender in Regulation of Redox Homeostasis in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

1
Division of Endocrinology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
2
Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, PA 15260, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8050135
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NADPH Oxidase–Mediated ROS in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension)
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Abstract

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is one of the diseases with a well-established gender dimorphism. The prevalence of PAH is increased in females with a ratio of 4:1, while poor survival prognosis is associated with the male gender. Nevertheless, the specific contribution of gender in disease development and progression is unclear due to the complex nature of the PAH. Oxidative and nitrosative stresses are important contributors in PAH pathogenesis; however, the role of gender in redox homeostasis has been understudied. This review is aimed to overview the possible sex-specific mechanisms responsible for the regulation of the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in relation to PAH pathobiology.
Keywords: pulmonary hypertension; gender difference; redox homeostasis; oxidation; antioxidants pulmonary hypertension; gender difference; redox homeostasis; oxidation; antioxidants
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Rafikov, R.; James, J.; McClain, N.; Tofovic, S.P.; Rafikova, O. Role of Gender in Regulation of Redox Homeostasis in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 135.

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