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Measurement and Clinical Significance of Lipid Peroxidation as a Biomarker of Oxidative Stress: Oxidative Stress in Diabetes, Atherosclerosis, and Chronic Inflammation
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Emerging Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Acute and Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Levels and Determinants

Fondazione CNR-Regione Toscana G Monasterio, 56100 Pisa, Italy
Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica, CNR, 56100 Pisa, Italy
Ospedale del Cuore G Pasquinucci, Fondazione CNR-Regione Toscana G Monasterio, 54100 Massa, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(5), 115;
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Risk and Disease)
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Background: Oxidative stress is crucial in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Under the generic terms “oxidative stress” (OS), many biomarkers belonging to different pathways have been proposed. Aim: To compare the levels of recently proposed OS-related parameters in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD), to evaluate their effectiveness as additive risk or illness indicators of stable and acute ischemic events, and their response over time during the course of AMI. Methods: 76 ACS, 77 CAD patients, and 63 controls were enrolled in the study. Different OS-related biomarkers, including reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), the total antioxidant capacity (OXY), nitrite/nitrate (final nitric oxide products, NOx), and Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), were evaluated. Moreover, time response during AMI course (admission, and 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 hours after, T0-T6, respectively) and correlation with traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking habit) were also assessed. Results: Over time, ROM progressively increased while OXY and NOx decreased. Kinetics of LOX-1 during AMI shows that this biomarker boosts early during the acute event (T1 and T2) and then progressively decreases, being significantly lower from T0 to T6. Different OS-related biomarkers were differentially associated with CV risk factors and CAD or ACS presence. Conclusion: Differences in OS-related biomarkers (between groups, according to the response over time during AMI, and to the presence of CV risk factors) confirmed OS involvement in the transition from healthy status to stable CAD and ACS, although evidencing the heterogeneous nature of redox processes. In future, a multi-marker panel including different biomarkers and pathways of oxidative stress could be evaluated as an additive tool to be used in the CV prevention, diagnosis, patient stratification, and treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxidative stress; acute coronary syndrome; stable coronary artery disease; biomarkers oxidative stress; acute coronary syndrome; stable coronary artery disease; biomarkers

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lubrano, V.; Pingitore, A.; Traghella, I.; Storti, S.; Parri, S.; Berti, S.; Ndreu, R.; Andrenelli, A.; Palmieri, C.; Iervasi, G.; Mastorci, F.; Vassalle, C. Emerging Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Acute and Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Levels and Determinants. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 115.

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