The Long-Term Algae Extract (Chlorella and Fucus sp) and Aminosulphurate Supplementation Modulate SOD-1 Activity and Decrease Heavy Metals (Hg++, Sn) Levels in Patients with Long-Term Dental Titanium Implants and Amalgam Fillings Restorations
Clínica CIROM, Centro de Implantología and Rehabilitación Oral Multidisciplinaria, 30001 Murcia, Spain
Department of Neuroanatomy, Instituto Cajal (CSIC), 28002 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8040101
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algal Antioxidants)
The toxicity of heavy metals such as Hg++ is a serious risk for human health. We evaluated whether 90 days of nutritional supplementation (d90, n = 16) with Chlorella vulgaris (CV) and Fucus sp extracts in conjunction with aminosulphurate (nutraceuticals) supplementation could detox heavy metal levels in patients with long-term titanium dental implants (average: three, average: 12 years in mouth) and/or amalgam fillings (average: four, average: 15 years) compared to baseline levels (d0: before any supplementation, n = 16) and untreated controls (without dental materials) of similar age (control, n = 21). In this study, we compared levels of several heavy metals/oligoelements in these patients after 90 days (n = 16) of nutritional supplementation with CV and aminozuphrates extract with their own baseline levels (d0, n = 16) and untreated controls (n = 21); 16 patients averaging 44 age years old with long-term dental amalgams and titanium implants for at least 10 years (average: 12 years) were recruited, as well as 21 non-supplemented controls (without dental materials) of similar age. The following heavy metals were quantified in hair samples as index of chronic heavy metal exposure before and after 90 days supplementation using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and expressed as μg/g of hair (Al, Hg++, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, and Ti). We also measured several oligoelements (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, Cu++, Zn++, Mn++, Cr, V, Mo, B, I, P, Se, Sr, P, Co, Fe++, Ge, Rb, and Zr). The algae and nutraceutical supplementation during 90 consecutive days decreased Hg++, Ag, Sn, and Pb at 90 days as compared to baseline levels. The mercury levels at 90 days decreased as compared with the untreated controls. The supplementation contributed to reducing heavy metal levels. There were increased lithium (Li) and germanium (Ge) levels after supplementation in patients with long-term dental titanium implants and amalgams. They also (d90) increased manganesum (Mn++), phosphorum (P), and iron (Fe++) levels as compared with their own basal levels (d0) and the untreated controls. Finally, decreased SuperOxide Dismutase-1 (SOD-1) activity (saliva) was observed after 90 days of supplementation as compared with basal levels (before any supplementation, d0), suggesting antioxidant effects. Conversely, we detected increased SOD-1 activity after 90 days as compared with untreated controls. This SOD-1 regulation could induce antioxidant effects in these patients. The long-term treatment with algae extract and aminosulphurates for 90 consecutive days decreased certain heavy metal levels (Hg++, Ag, Sn, Pb, and U) as compared with basal levels. However, Hg++ and Sn reductions were observed after 90 days as compared with untreated controls (without dental materials). The dental amalgam restoration using activated nasal filters in conjunction with long-term nutritional supplementation enhanced heavy metals removal. Finally, the long-term supplementation with these algae and aminoazuphrates was safe and non-toxic in patients. These supplements prevented certain deficits in oligoelements without affecting their Na+/K+ ratios after long-term nutraceutical supplementation.