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Effect of Side Chain Functional Groups on the DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Bisabolane-Type Phenols

Department of Chemistry and Life Science, YOKOHAMA National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501, Japan
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Antioxidants 2019, 8(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8030065
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Antioxidant Activity)
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Abstract

Methods for improving the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds have been widely investigated; however, most studies have focused on the structure–activity correlations of substituents on the aromatic rings of catechols or flavonoids. We investigated the influence of side chain functional groups on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of xanthorrhizol and curcuphenol analogues. These compounds were synthesised by the side chain functional group conversion of curcumene, followed by direct oxidation of the aromatic ring. We determined the DPPH radical scavenging activity from the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) obtained from a DPPH assay in methanol. The positional relationships of the side chain with the aromatic ring and phenolic OH group were determined using density functional theory calculations, and the stability of different conformations was compared. Electron transfer-proton transfer was determined to be the dominant mechanism in the DPPH reaction with xanthorrhizol analogues, based on the correlation between the EC50 and ionisation potential. The radical cation was greatly stabilised in the structure where the side chain functional group was close to the aromatic ring. Stabilisation also depended on the phenolic OH group position. In future antioxidant design, aromatic ring substituent conversion and the use of functional groups far from the OH group or ring should be explored. View Full-Text
Keywords: curcuphenol; electron proton transfer; phenols; sesquiterpenes; xanthorrhizol curcuphenol; electron proton transfer; phenols; sesquiterpenes; xanthorrhizol
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Ichikawa, K.; Sasada, R.; Chiba, K.; Gotoh, H. Effect of Side Chain Functional Groups on the DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Bisabolane-Type Phenols. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 65.

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