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Open AccessArticle

Green Extraction Approaches for Carotenoids and Esters: Characterization of Native Composition from Orange Peel

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Bioscience Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Rua Silva Jardin 136, 11015-020 Santos, Brazil
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Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Polo Annunziata, Viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
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Department of Mathematical and Computer Science, Physical Sciences and Earth Sciences, University of Messina, 98168 Messina, Italy
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Federal Institute of São Paulo, Av. Clara Gianotti de Souza 5180, 11900-000 Registro, Brazil
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Chemistry Department, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luíz, Km 235, 13565-905 São Carlos, Brazil
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Chromaleont s.r.l., c/o Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
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BeSep s.r.l., c/o Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
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Unit of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, 00128 Rome, Italy
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Department of Biomedical, Dental, Morphological and Functional Imaging Sciences, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, 98125 Messina, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(12), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8120613
Received: 7 November 2019 / Revised: 18 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recents Developments in Bioactive Molecules Evaluation)
Orange peel is a by-product produced in large amounts that acts as a source of natural pigments such as carotenoids. Xanthophylls, the main carotenoid class found in citrus fruit, can be present in its free form or esterified with fatty acids, forming esters. This esterification modifies the compound’s chemical properties, affecting their bioavailability in the human body, and making it important to characterize the native carotenoid composition of food matrices. We aimed to evaluate the non-saponified carotenoid extracts of orange peel (cv. Pera) obtained using alternative green approaches: extraction with ionic liquid (IL), analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), followed by supercritical fluid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (SFC-APCI/QqQ/MS) in an online system. Both alternative green methods were successfully applied, allowing the total identification of five free carotenoids, one apocarotenoid, seven monoesters, and 11 diesters in the extract obtained with IL and analyzed by HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS, and nine free carotenoids, six carotenoids esters, 19 apocarotenoids, and eight apo-esters with the SFE-SFC-APCI/QqQ/MS approach, including several free apocarotenoids and apocarotenoid esters identified for the first time in oranges, and particularly in the Pera variety, which could be used as a fruit authenticity parameter. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus; xanthophylls; esterification; fatty acids; apocarotenoids; ionic liquid; [C4mim]Cl; supercritical fluid citrus; xanthophylls; esterification; fatty acids; apocarotenoids; ionic liquid; [C4mim]Cl; supercritical fluid
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Murador, D.C.; Salafia, F.; Zoccali, M.; Martins, P.L.G.; Ferreira, A.G.; Dugo, P.; Mondello, L.; de Rosso, V.V.; Giuffrida, D. Green Extraction Approaches for Carotenoids and Esters: Characterization of Native Composition from Orange Peel. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 613.

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