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Open AccessArticle

Coordination Complex Formation and Redox Properties of Kynurenic and Xanthurenic Acid Can Affect Brain Tissue Homeodynamics

1
Division of Molecular Systems Biology, Department of Ecogenomics and Systems Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
2
Department of Plant Biochemistry, Albrecht-von-Haller Institut, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 11, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
3
Vienna Metabolomics Center (VIME), University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100476
Received: 13 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Chemistry of Antioxidant Activity)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known for their participation in various physiological and pathological processes in organisms, including ageing or degeneration. Kynurenine pathway metabolites, such as kynurenic (KYNA) or xanthurenic (XA) acid, can affect neurodegenerative diseases due to their ROS scavenging and Fe ion coordination complex formation but insights are still incomplete. Therefore, we investigated the formation and antioxidant capabilities of KYNA– and XA–Fe complexes by nano-electrospray−mass spectrometry, differential pulse voltammetry, deoxyribose degradation and FeII autoxidation assays. XA formed coordination complexes with FeII or FeIII ions and was an effective antioxidant. By contrast, only FeII–KYNA complexes could be detected. Moreover, KYNA showed no antioxidant effects in the FeCl3/ascorbic acid deoxyribose degradation assay variant and only negligible activities in the FeII autoxidation assay. Coordination complexes of Fe ions with KYNA probably stabilize KYNA in its keto tautomer form. Nevertheless, both KYNA and XA exhibited sufficient antioxidant activities in some of the employed assay variants. The results provide evidence that both have the potential to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases by helping to maintain tissue redox homeodynamics. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; antioxidant; Fenton reaction; hydroxyl radical; iron chelates; kynurenines; neurodegeneration; Parkinsonism; reactive oxygen species Alzheimer’s disease; antioxidant; Fenton reaction; hydroxyl radical; iron chelates; kynurenines; neurodegeneration; Parkinsonism; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kubicova, L.; Hadacek, F.; Bachmann, G.; Weckwerth, W.; Chobot, V. Coordination Complex Formation and Redox Properties of Kynurenic and Xanthurenic Acid Can Affect Brain Tissue Homeodynamics. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 476.

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