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Role of Heme Oxygenase as a Modulator of Heme-Mediated Pathways

1
Institute for Medical Biochemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1210 Vienna, Austria
3
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, 1200 Vienna, Austria
4
Laboratory of Navigational Redox Lipidomics, Department of Human Pathology, IM Sechenov Moscow State Medical University, 119992 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100475
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 7 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
The heme oxygenase (HO) system is essential for heme and iron homeostasis and necessary for adaptation to cell stress. HO degrades heme to biliverdin (BV), carbon monoxide (CO) and ferrous iron. Although mostly beneficial, the HO reaction can also produce deleterious effects, predominantly attributed to excessive product formation. Underrated so far is, however, that HO may exert effects additionally via modulation of the cellular heme levels. Heme, besides being an often-quoted generator of oxidative stress, plays also an important role as a signaling molecule. Heme controls the anti-oxidative defense, circadian rhythms, activity of ion channels, glucose utilization, erythropoiesis, and macrophage function. This broad spectrum of effects depends on its interaction with proteins ranging from transcription factors to enzymes. In degrading heme, HO has the potential to exert effects also via modulation of heme-mediated pathways. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of pathways regulated by heme to enlarge the view on HO and its role in cell physiology. We will further highlight the contribution of HO to pathophysiology, which results from a dysregulated balance between heme and the degradation products formed by HO. View Full-Text
Keywords: heme oxygenase; free heme; free iron; intracellular signaling; oxidative stress; biliverdin; carbon monoxide heme oxygenase; free heme; free iron; intracellular signaling; oxidative stress; biliverdin; carbon monoxide
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Duvigneau, J.C.; Esterbauer, H.; Kozlov, A.V. Role of Heme Oxygenase as a Modulator of Heme-Mediated Pathways. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 475.

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