Next Article in Journal
Coordination Complex Formation and Redox Properties of Kynurenic and Xanthurenic Acid Can Affect Brain Tissue Homeodynamics
Next Article in Special Issue
Neuroprotection after Hemorrhagic Stroke Depends on Cerebral Heme Oxygenase-1
Previous Article in Journal
A New Natural Antioxidant Biomaterial from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira Leaves Represses Melanogenesis and Protects against DNA Damage
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Remote Ischemic and Anesthetic Organ Conditioning
Open AccessReview

Role of Heme Oxygenase as a Modulator of Heme-Mediated Pathways

Institute for Medical Biochemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1210 Vienna, Austria
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, 1200 Vienna, Austria
Laboratory of Navigational Redox Lipidomics, Department of Human Pathology, IM Sechenov Moscow State Medical University, 119992 Moscow, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 475;
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 7 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
The heme oxygenase (HO) system is essential for heme and iron homeostasis and necessary for adaptation to cell stress. HO degrades heme to biliverdin (BV), carbon monoxide (CO) and ferrous iron. Although mostly beneficial, the HO reaction can also produce deleterious effects, predominantly attributed to excessive product formation. Underrated so far is, however, that HO may exert effects additionally via modulation of the cellular heme levels. Heme, besides being an often-quoted generator of oxidative stress, plays also an important role as a signaling molecule. Heme controls the anti-oxidative defense, circadian rhythms, activity of ion channels, glucose utilization, erythropoiesis, and macrophage function. This broad spectrum of effects depends on its interaction with proteins ranging from transcription factors to enzymes. In degrading heme, HO has the potential to exert effects also via modulation of heme-mediated pathways. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of pathways regulated by heme to enlarge the view on HO and its role in cell physiology. We will further highlight the contribution of HO to pathophysiology, which results from a dysregulated balance between heme and the degradation products formed by HO. View Full-Text
Keywords: heme oxygenase; free heme; free iron; intracellular signaling; oxidative stress; biliverdin; carbon monoxide heme oxygenase; free heme; free iron; intracellular signaling; oxidative stress; biliverdin; carbon monoxide
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Duvigneau, J.C.; Esterbauer, H.; Kozlov, A.V. Role of Heme Oxygenase as a Modulator of Heme-Mediated Pathways. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 475.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop