Next Article in Journal
Antioxidant Activity of Yichun Blue Honeysuckle (YBHS) Berry Counteracts CCl4-Induced Toxicity in Liver Injury Model of Mice
Next Article in Special Issue
Cysteine, Glutathione, and Thiol Redox Balance in Astrocytes
Previous Article in Journal
Deletion of TXNIP Mitigates High-Fat Diet-Impaired Angiogenesis and Prevents Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Critical Limb Ischemia
Article Menu
Issue 3 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 48;

Early and Late Induction of KRAS and HRAS Proto-Oncogenes by Reactive Oxygen Species in Primary Astrocytes

Department of Human Sciences, Society and Health, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Cassino 03043, Italy
Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “Vincenzo Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso 86100, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 17 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Astrocyte Antioxidant Systems)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3593 KB, uploaded 29 June 2017]   |  


Astrocytes, one of the predominant types of glial cells, function as both supportive and metabolic cells for the brain. Among mammalian tissues, the highest levels of p21Ras protein are detected in the brain. Here, we investigated the expression of KRAS and HRAS proto-oncogenes in primary astrocytes following acute oxidative stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) changed the expression of proto-oncogenes at both transcriptional and translational levels. De novo protein synthesis analysis measured approximate values of proteins half-life, ranging from 1–4 h, of the different H- and K- isoforms by western blot analysis. Quantitative gene expression analysis of KRAS and HRAS revealed an unexpected short-term induction of KRAS mRNA in primary astrocytes in response to acute stimulation. Indeed, cultured astrocytes responded to proteasomal inhibition by preventing the reduction of c-K-Ras. A fraction of K-Ras protein accumulated in the presence of ROS and cycloheximide, while a substantial proportion was continuously synthesized. These data indicate that ROS regulate in a complementary fashion p21Ras isoforms in primary astrocytes: K-Ras is rapidly and transiently induced by post-translational and post-transcriptional mechanisms, while H-Ras is stably induced by mRNA accumulation. We suggest that K-Ras and H-Ras are ROS sensors that adapt cells to metabolic needs and oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: p21Ras; KRAS; HRAS; astrocytes; reactive oxygen species p21Ras; KRAS; HRAS; astrocytes; reactive oxygen species

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Messina, S.; Di Zazzo, E.; Moncharmont, B. Early and Late Induction of KRAS and HRAS Proto-Oncogenes by Reactive Oxygen Species in Primary Astrocytes. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 48.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Antioxidants EISSN 2076-3921 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top