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Open AccessArticle

Effects of (+)-Catechin on the Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Full-Fat Cheese during Ripening and Recovery of (+)-Catechin after Simulated In Vitro Digestion

1
Department of Food Science, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2
Riddet Institute, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Volker Böhm
Antioxidants 2016, 5(3), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox5030029
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
(+)-Catechin, the representative catechin in green tea, was incorporated into a full-fat cheese (at 125–500 ppm) followed by ripening for 90 days at 8 °C and digesting for six hours. Determination of pH, proximate composition, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) after manufacture and ripening demonstrated that the addition of (+)-catechin significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased the pH of both whey and curd during cheese manufacturing and ripening with no significant (p > 0.05) effect on the moisture, protein and fat contents. (+)-Catechin increased TPC, as well as AA, though the increase was not proportional with increasing the concentration of added (+)-catechin. About 57%–69% of (+)-catechin was retained in the cheese curd, whereas about 19%–39% (depending on the concentration) was recovered from the cheese digesta. Transmission electron micrographs showed that the ripened control cheese had a homogeneous pattern of milk fat globules with regular spacing entrapped in a homogenous structure of casein proteins, whereas the addition of (+)-catechin disrupted this homogenous structure. The apparent interaction between (+)-catechin and cheese fat globules was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These associations should be taken into account when incorporating antioxidants, such as (+)-catechin, to create functional dairy products, such as cheese. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenol; green tea; functional cheese; cheese microstructure polyphenol; green tea; functional cheese; cheese microstructure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rashidinejad, A.; Birch, E.J.; Everett, D.W. Effects of (+)-Catechin on the Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Full-Fat Cheese during Ripening and Recovery of (+)-Catechin after Simulated In Vitro Digestion. Antioxidants 2016, 5, 29.

AMA Style

Rashidinejad A, Birch EJ, Everett DW. Effects of (+)-Catechin on the Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Full-Fat Cheese during Ripening and Recovery of (+)-Catechin after Simulated In Vitro Digestion. Antioxidants. 2016; 5(3):29.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, E. J.; Everett, David W. 2016. "Effects of (+)-Catechin on the Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Full-Fat Cheese during Ripening and Recovery of (+)-Catechin after Simulated In Vitro Digestion" Antioxidants 5, no. 3: 29.

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