Next Article in Journal
Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids
Next Article in Special Issue
Use of Saliva Biomarkers to Monitor Efficacy of Vitamin C in Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of (+)-Catechin on the Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Full-Fat Cheese during Ripening and Recovery of (+)-Catechin after Simulated In Vitro Digestion
Open AccessArticle

Protandim Protects Oligodendrocytes against an Oxidative Insult

Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Department of Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, the Netherlands
Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Science and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado at Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stanley Omaye
Antioxidants 2016, 5(3), 30;
Received: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 2 August 2016 / Published: 7 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers 2016)
Oligodendrocyte damage and loss are key features of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. Oligodendrocytes appear to be particularly vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), which induce cell death and prevent the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). Here, we investigated the efficacy of sulforaphane (SFN), monomethyl fumarate (MMF) and Protandim to induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme expression, and protect oligodendrocytes against ROS-induced cell death and ROS-and TNF-mediated inhibition of OPC differentiation. OLN-93 cells and primary rat oligodendrocytes were treated with SFN, MMF or Protandim resulting in significant induction of Nrf2-driven (antioxidant) proteins heme oygenase-1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH): quinone oxidoreductase-1 and p62/SQSTM1, as analysed by Western blotting. After incubation with the compounds, oligodendrocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Protandim most potently promoted oligodendrocyte cell survival as measured by live/death viability assay. Moreover, OPCs were treated with Protandim or vehicle control prior to exposing them to TNF or hydrogen peroxide for five days, which inhibited OPC differentiation. Protandim significantly promoted OPC differentiation under influence of ROS, but not TNF. Protandim, a combination of five herbal ingredients, potently induces antioxidants in oligodendrocytes and is able to protect oligodendrocytes against oxidative stress by preventing ROS-induced cell death and promoting OPC differentiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; reactive oxygen species; Nrf2; antioxidant enzymes multiple sclerosis; reactive oxygen species; Nrf2; antioxidant enzymes
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Lim, J.L.; Van der Pol, S.M.A.; Baron, W.; McCord, J.M.; De Vries, H.E.; Van Horssen, J. Protandim Protects Oligodendrocytes against an Oxidative Insult. Antioxidants 2016, 5, 30.

AMA Style

Lim JL, Van der Pol SMA, Baron W, McCord JM, De Vries HE, Van Horssen J. Protandim Protects Oligodendrocytes against an Oxidative Insult. Antioxidants. 2016; 5(3):30.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lim, Jamie L.; Van der Pol, Susanne M.A.; Baron, Wia; McCord, Joe M.; De Vries, Helga E.; Van Horssen, Jack. 2016. "Protandim Protects Oligodendrocytes against an Oxidative Insult" Antioxidants 5, no. 3: 30.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop