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Article

Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induces Early-Stage Metabolic Dysfunction Independently of Adipose Tissue Deregulation

1
CEDOC, NOVA Medical School, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 1150-082 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Departamento de Enfermeria, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
3
Instituto de Biologia y Genetica Molecular (IBGM), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
4
Departamento de Bioquimica, Biologia Molecular y Fisiologia, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
5
Institute of Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
6
Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, Coimbra Health School, 3045-093 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors have contributed equally for the manuscript.
Academic Editor: Ho Jae Han
Antioxidants 2021, 10(8), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081233
Received: 2 June 2021 / Revised: 9 July 2021 / Accepted: 29 July 2021 / Published: 30 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology and Pathophysiology of Oxygen Sensitivity)
Several studies demonstrated a link between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the development of insulin resistance. However, the main event triggering insulin resistance in OSA remains to be clarified. Herein, we investigated the effect of mild and severe chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on whole-body metabolic deregulation and visceral adipose tissue dysfunction. Moreover, we studied the contribution of obesity to CIH-induced dysmetabolic states. Experiments were performed in male Wistar rats submitted to a control and high-fat (HF) diet. Two CIH protocols were tested: A mild CIH paradigm (5/6 hypoxic (5% O2) cycles/h, 10.5 h/day) during 35 days and a severe CIH paradigm (30 hypoxic (5% O2) cycles, 8 h/day) during 15 days. Fasting glycemia, insulinemia, insulin sensitivity, weight, and fat mass were assessed. Adipose tissue hypoxia, inflammation, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, and metabolism were investigated. Mild and severe CIH increased insulin levels and induced whole-body insulin resistance in control animals, effects not associated with weight gain. In control animals, CIH did not modify adipocytes perimeter as well as adipose tissue hypoxia, angiogenesis, inflammation or oxidative stress. In HF animals, severe CIH attenuated the increase in adipocytes perimeter, adipose tissue hypoxia, angiogenesis, and dysmetabolism. In conclusion, adipose tissue dysfunction is not the main trigger for initial dysmetabolism in CIH. CIH in an early stage might have a protective role against the deleterious effects of HF diet on adipose tissue metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: obstructive sleep apnea; metabolic dysfunction; insulin resistance; adipose tissue; hypoxia; inflammation; oxidative stress obstructive sleep apnea; metabolic dysfunction; insulin resistance; adipose tissue; hypoxia; inflammation; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martins, F.O.; Sacramento, J.F.; Olea, E.; Melo, B.F.; Prieto-Lloret, J.; Obeso, A.; Rocher, A.; Matafome, P.; Monteiro, E.C.; Conde, S.V. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induces Early-Stage Metabolic Dysfunction Independently of Adipose Tissue Deregulation. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1233. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081233

AMA Style

Martins FO, Sacramento JF, Olea E, Melo BF, Prieto-Lloret J, Obeso A, Rocher A, Matafome P, Monteiro EC, Conde SV. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induces Early-Stage Metabolic Dysfunction Independently of Adipose Tissue Deregulation. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(8):1233. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081233

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martins, Fátima O., Joana F. Sacramento, Elena Olea, Bernardete F. Melo, Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Ana Obeso, Asuncion Rocher, Paulo Matafome, Emilia C. Monteiro, and Silvia V. Conde. 2021. "Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induces Early-Stage Metabolic Dysfunction Independently of Adipose Tissue Deregulation" Antioxidants 10, no. 8: 1233. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081233

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