Next Article in Journal
Effects of Transpulmonary Administration of Caffeine on Brain Activity in Healthy Men
Previous Article in Journal
Local and Global Changes in Brain Metabolism during Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Prediction of PD-L1 Expression in Neuroblastoma via Computational Modeling

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, 95123- Catania, Italy
IRCCS (Istituti di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico) Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo, C.da Casazza, 98124- Messina, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(9), 221;
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 26 August 2019 / Accepted: 31 August 2019 / Published: 31 August 2019
Immunotherapy is a promising new therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma (NBM): an anti-GD2 vaccine combined with orally administered soluble beta-glucan is undergoing a phase II clinical trial and nivolumab and ipilimumab are being tested in recurrent and refractory tumors. Unfortunately, predictive biomarkers of response to immunotherapy are currently not available for NBM patients. The aim of this study was to create a computational network model simulating the different intracellular pathways involved in NBM, in order to predict how the tumor phenotype may be influenced to increase the sensitivity to anti-programmed cell death-ligand-1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) immunotherapy. The model runs on COPASI software. In order to determine the influence of intracellular signaling pathways on the expression of PD-L1 in NBM, we first developed an integrated network of protein kinase cascades. Michaelis–Menten kinetics were associated to each reaction in order to tailor the different enzymes kinetics, creating a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The data of this study offers a first tool to be considered in the therapeutic management of the NBM patient undergoing immunotherapeutic treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuroblastoma; PD-L1; computational modelling; immunotherapy; COPASI neuroblastoma; PD-L1; computational modelling; immunotherapy; COPASI
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lombardo, S.D.; Presti, M.; Mangano, K.; Petralia, M.C.; Basile, M.S.; Libra, M.; Candido, S.; Fagone, P.; Mazzon, E.; Nicoletti, F.; Bramanti, A. Prediction of PD-L1 Expression in Neuroblastoma via Computational Modeling. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 221.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop