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Neuromodulation Strategies in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: From Preclinical Models to Clinical Applications

1
Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON M4N3M5, Canada
2
Harquail Centre for Neuromodulation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5, Canada
3
Department of Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5, Canada
4
Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9020045
Received: 2 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurobiology of Fear: From Basic Mechanisms to Therapeutic Approaches)
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Abstract

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an often debilitating disease with a lifetime prevalence rate between 5–8%. In war veterans, these numbers are even higher, reaching approximately 10% to 25%. Although most patients benefit from the use of medications and psychotherapy, approximately 20% to 30% do not have an adequate response to conventional treatments. Neuromodulation strategies have been investigated for various psychiatric disorders with promising results, and may represent an important treatment option for individuals with difficult-to-treat forms of PTSD. We review the relevant neurocircuitry and preclinical stimulation studies in models of fear and anxiety, as well as clinical data on the use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of PTSD. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep brain stimulation; fear extinction; post-traumatic stress disorder; transcranial direct current stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation deep brain stimulation; fear extinction; post-traumatic stress disorder; transcranial direct current stimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gouveia, F.V.; Gidyk, D.C.; Giacobbe, P.; Ng, E.; Meng, Y.; Davidson, B.; Abrahao, A.; Lipsman, N.; Hamani, C. Neuromodulation Strategies in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: From Preclinical Models to Clinical Applications. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 45.

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