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Open AccessArticle

Typical and Aberrant Functional Brain Flexibility: Lifespan Development and Aberrant Organization in Traumatic Brain Injury and Dyslexia

1
Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK
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Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK
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School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT, UK
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Neuroinformatics Group, Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK
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Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK
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MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK
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School of Medicine, University of Crete, Herakleion 70013, Greece
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Institute of Computer Science, Foundation for Research and Technology, Herakleion 70013, Greece
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Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, TX 77204-5022, USA
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Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN 38103, USA
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Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital, Memphis, TN 38103, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(12), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9120380
Received: 23 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 December 2019 / Published: 16 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Brain Dynamics: Latest Advances and Prospects)
Intrinsic functional connectivity networks derived from different neuroimaging methods and connectivity estimators have revealed robust developmental trends linked to behavioural and cognitive maturation. The present study employed a dynamic functional connectivity approach to determine dominant intrinsic coupling modes in resting-state neuromagnetic data from 178 healthy participants aged 8–60 years. Results revealed significant developmental trends in three types of dominant intra- and inter-hemispheric neuronal population interactions (amplitude envelope, phase coupling, and phase-amplitude synchronization) involving frontal, temporal, and parieto-occipital regions. Multi-class support vector machines achieved 89% correct classification of participants according to their chronological age using dynamic functional connectivity indices. Moreover, systematic temporal variability in functional connectivity profiles, which was used to empirically derive a composite flexibility index, displayed an inverse U-shaped curve among healthy participants. Lower flexibility values were found among age-matched children with reading disability and adults who had suffered mild traumatic brain injury. The importance of these results for normal and abnormal brain development are discussed in light of the recently proposed role of cross-frequency interactions in the fine-grained coordination of neuronal population activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: resting-state activity; magnetoencephalography; brain maturation; cross-frequency coupling; reading disability; traumatic brain injury resting-state activity; magnetoencephalography; brain maturation; cross-frequency coupling; reading disability; traumatic brain injury
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dimitriadis, S.I.; Simos, P.G.; Fletcher, J.Μ.; Papanicolaou, A.C. Typical and Aberrant Functional Brain Flexibility: Lifespan Development and Aberrant Organization in Traumatic Brain Injury and Dyslexia. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 380.

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