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Open AccessArticle

Classification of Drowsiness Levels Based on a Deep Spatio-Temporal Convolutional Bidirectional LSTM Network Using Electroencephalography Signals

1
Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-ku, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Department of Artificial Intelligence, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-ku, Seoul 02841, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(12), 348; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9120348
Received: 21 October 2019 / Revised: 22 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 29 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Collection on Neural Engineering)
Non-invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have been developed for recognizing human mental states with high accuracy and for decoding various types of mental conditions. In particular, accurately decoding a pilot’s mental state is a critical issue as more than 70% of aviation accidents are caused by human factors, such as fatigue or drowsiness. In this study, we report the classification of not only two mental states (i.e., alert and drowsy states) but also five drowsiness levels from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. To the best of our knowledge, this approach is the first to classify drowsiness levels in detail using only EEG signals. We acquired EEG data from ten pilots in a simulated night flight environment. For accurate detection, we proposed a deep spatio-temporal convolutional bidirectional long short-term memory network (DSTCLN) model. We evaluated the classification performance using Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) values for two mental states and five drowsiness levels. The grand-averaged classification accuracies were 0.87 (±0.01) and 0.69 (±0.02), respectively. Hence, we demonstrated the feasibility of classifying five drowsiness levels with high accuracy using deep learning. View Full-Text
Keywords: Brain-Computer Interface; electroencephalogram; mental states; drowsiness levels classification; deep learning Brain-Computer Interface; electroencephalogram; mental states; drowsiness levels classification; deep learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, J.-H.; Yu, B.-W.; Lee, D.-H.; Lee, S.-W. Classification of Drowsiness Levels Based on a Deep Spatio-Temporal Convolutional Bidirectional LSTM Network Using Electroencephalography Signals. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 348. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9120348

AMA Style

Jeong J-H, Yu B-W, Lee D-H, Lee S-W. Classification of Drowsiness Levels Based on a Deep Spatio-Temporal Convolutional Bidirectional LSTM Network Using Electroencephalography Signals. Brain Sciences. 2019; 9(12):348. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9120348

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jeong, Ji-Hoon; Yu, Baek-Woon; Lee, Dae-Hyeok; Lee, Seong-Whan. 2019. "Classification of Drowsiness Levels Based on a Deep Spatio-Temporal Convolutional Bidirectional LSTM Network Using Electroencephalography Signals" Brain Sci. 9, no. 12: 348. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9120348

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