Next Article in Journal
Cognitive Mediators of School-Related Socio-Adaptive Behaviors in ASD and Intellectual Disability Pre- and Adolescents: A Pilot-Study in French Special Education Classrooms
Previous Article in Journal
Cannabis Influences the Putative Cytokines-Related Pathway of Epilepsy among Egyptian Epileptic Patients
Open AccessArticle

Muscle-Specific Modulation of Spinal Reflexes in Lower-Limb Muscles during Action Observation with and without Motor Imagery of Walking

1
Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan
2
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083, Japan
3
Institute of Sports Medicine and Science, Tokyo International University, Matoba, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama 350-1198, Japan
4
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan
5
Rehabilitation Engineering Laboratory, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON M4G 3V9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(12), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9120333
Received: 2 October 2019 / Revised: 18 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 21 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Body in Brain Plasticity)
Action observation (AO) and motor imagery (MI) are useful techniques in neurorehabilitation. Previous studies have reported that AO and MI facilitate corticospinal excitability only in those muscles that are active when actually performing the observed or imagined movements. However, it remained unclear whether spinal reflexes modulate multiple muscles simultaneously. The present study focused on AO and MI of walking and aimed to clarify their effects on spinal reflexes in lower-limb muscles that are recruited during actual walking. Ten healthy males participated in the present study. Spinal reflex parameters evoked by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation were measured from five lower-limb muscles during rest, AO, and AO combined with MI (AO + MI) conditions. Our results showed that spinal reflexes were increased in the tibialis anterior and biceps femoris muscles during AO and in the tibialis anterior, soleus, and medial gastrocnemius muscles during AO + MI, compared with resting condition. Spinal reflex parameters in the vastus medialis muscle were unchanged. These results indicate the muscle-specific modulations of spinal reflexes during AO and AO + MI. These findings reveal the underlying neural activities induced by AO, MI, and their combined processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: action observation; motor imagery; walking; spinal reflex; transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation action observation; motor imagery; walking; spinal reflex; transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kaneko, N.; Masugi, Y.; Usuda, N.; Yokoyama, H.; Nakazawa, K. Muscle-Specific Modulation of Spinal Reflexes in Lower-Limb Muscles during Action Observation with and without Motor Imagery of Walking. Brain Sci. 2019, 9, 333.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop