Next Article in Journal
Neurophysiological Markers of Statistical Learning in Music and Language: Hierarchy, Entropy and Uncertainty
Next Article in Special Issue
Neurite Growth and Polarization on Vitronectin Substrate after in Vitro Trauma is not Enhanced after IGF Treatment
Previous Article in Journal
Effective Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury in Rowett Nude Rats with Stromal Vascular Fraction Transplantation
Previous Article in Special Issue
Emerging Cellular and Molecular Strategies for Enhancing Central Nervous System (CNS) Remyelination
Open AccessReview

A Review of Traumatic Brain Injury and the Gut Microbiome: Insights into Novel Mechanisms of Secondary Brain Injury and Promising Targets for Neuroprotection

1
Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive (MC 7740), San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
2
Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
3
Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(6), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8060113
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Mechanisms and Strategies for Neural Repair)
The gut microbiome and its role in health and disease have recently been major focus areas of research. In this review, we summarize the different ways in which the gut microbiome interacts with the rest of the body, with focus areas on its relationships with immunity, the brain, and injury. The gut–brain axis, a communication network linking together the central and enteric nervous systems, represents a key bidirectional pathway with feed-forward and feedback mechanisms. The gut microbiota has a central role in this pathway and is significantly altered following injury, leading to a pro-inflammatory state within the central nervous system (CNS). Herein, we examine traumatic brain injury (TBI) in relation to this axis and explore potential interventions, which may serve as targets for improving clinical outcomes and preventing secondary brain injury. View Full-Text
Keywords: Traumatic brain injury (TBI); microbiome; gastrointestinal (GI); gut; commensals; brain-gut axis; central nervous system (CNS); enteric nervous system (ENS) Traumatic brain injury (TBI); microbiome; gastrointestinal (GI); gut; commensals; brain-gut axis; central nervous system (CNS); enteric nervous system (ENS)
MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, C.S.; Grandhi, R.; Patterson, T.T.; Nicholson, S.E. A Review of Traumatic Brain Injury and the Gut Microbiome: Insights into Novel Mechanisms of Secondary Brain Injury and Promising Targets for Neuroprotection. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 113.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop