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Brain Sci. 2018, 8(6), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8060113

A Review of Traumatic Brain Injury and the Gut Microbiome: Insights into Novel Mechanisms of Secondary Brain Injury and Promising Targets for Neuroprotection

1
Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive (MC 7740), San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
2
Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
3
Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 17 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Mechanisms and Strategies for Neural Repair)
Full-Text   |   PDF [233 KB, uploaded 19 June 2018]   |   Review Reports

Abstract

The gut microbiome and its role in health and disease have recently been major focus areas of research. In this review, we summarize the different ways in which the gut microbiome interacts with the rest of the body, with focus areas on its relationships with immunity, the brain, and injury. The gut–brain axis, a communication network linking together the central and enteric nervous systems, represents a key bidirectional pathway with feed-forward and feedback mechanisms. The gut microbiota has a central role in this pathway and is significantly altered following injury, leading to a pro-inflammatory state within the central nervous system (CNS). Herein, we examine traumatic brain injury (TBI) in relation to this axis and explore potential interventions, which may serve as targets for improving clinical outcomes and preventing secondary brain injury. View Full-Text
Keywords: Traumatic brain injury (TBI); microbiome; gastrointestinal (GI); gut; commensals; brain-gut axis; central nervous system (CNS); enteric nervous system (ENS) Traumatic brain injury (TBI); microbiome; gastrointestinal (GI); gut; commensals; brain-gut axis; central nervous system (CNS); enteric nervous system (ENS)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhu, C.S.; Grandhi, R.; Patterson, T.T.; Nicholson, S.E. A Review of Traumatic Brain Injury and the Gut Microbiome: Insights into Novel Mechanisms of Secondary Brain Injury and Promising Targets for Neuroprotection. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 113.

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