Depression, Olfaction, and Quality of Life: A Mutual Relationship
UMR 1253, iBrain, Université de Tours, Inserm, 37200 Tours, France
CHRU de Tours, Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, 37044 Tours, France
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, P.O. Box 17-5208, 11-5076 Beirut, Lebanon
Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, 60096 Jal Eddib, Lebanon
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(5), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8050080
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression)
Olfactory dysfunction has been well studied in depression. Common brain areas are involved in depression and in the olfactory process, suggesting that olfactory impairments may constitute potential markers of this disorder. Olfactory markers of depression can be either state (present only in symptomatic phases) or trait (persistent after symptomatic remission) markers. This study presents the etiology of depression, the anatomical links between olfaction and depression, and a literature review of different olfactory markers of depression. Several studies have also shown that olfactory impairment affects the quality of life and that olfactory disorders can affect daily life and may be lead to depression. Thus, this study discusses the links between olfactory processing, depression, and quality of life. Finally, olfaction is an innovative research field that may constitute a new therapeutic tool for the treatment of depression.