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Brain Sci. 2015, 5(1), 58-68;

Lead Excretion in Spanish Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Children's Mental Health Centre, Hospital Arnau de Villanova, 46015 Valencia, Spain
Area of Mental Health and Psychiatry, Area Sagunto, 46520 Sagunto (Valencia), Spain
Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Susan Shur-Fen Gau and Xiaoming Wang
Received: 20 October 2014 / Revised: 24 December 2014 / Accepted: 5 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism Spectrum Disorder)
Full-Text   |   PDF [151 KB, uploaded 16 February 2015]   |  


Among epigenetic factors leading to increased prevalence of juvenile neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, exposure to metals, such as lead (Pb) have led to conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of Pb in the urine of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with typically developing children (TD) age- and sex-matched, and to analyze any association between core symptoms of ASD, special diets, supplements intake or prescription drugs and the concentration of Pb. The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (n = 35, average age 7.4 ± 0.5 years) and TD (n = 34, average age 7.7 ± 0.9 years). Measurement of lead in urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry; symptoms of ASD were analyzed by diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DMS-IV) using the questionnary ADI-R. Careful clinical evaluation was also undertaken and statistical analysis was done taking into account any possible confounding factor. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead; autism spectrum disorder; core symptoms; biomarker; DMS IV lead; autism spectrum disorder; core symptoms; biomarker; DMS IV

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Fuentes-Albero, M.; Puig-Alcaraz, C.; Cauli, O. Lead Excretion in Spanish Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Brain Sci. 2015, 5, 58-68.

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