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Article

Dose-Related Reduction in Hippocampal Neuronal Populations in Fetal Alcohol Exposed Vervet Monkeys

1
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
2
School of Optometry and Department of Physiology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
3
Department of Neuroscience, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
4
Behavioural Science Foundation, St. Kitts, Saint Kitts and Nevis
5
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 1A1, Canada
6
Departments of Human Genetics and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 1A1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased.
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(9), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12091117
Received: 25 July 2022 / Revised: 13 August 2022 / Accepted: 17 August 2022 / Published: 23 August 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Developmental Neuroscience)
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a chronic debilitating condition resulting in behavioral and intellectual impairments and is considered the most prevalent form of preventable mental retardation in the industrialized world. We previously reported that 2-year-old offspring of vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) dams drinking, on average, 2.3 ± 0.49 g ethanol per Kg maternal body weight 4 days per week during the last third of pregnancy had significantly lower numbers of CA1 (−51.6%), CA2 (−51.2%) and CA3 (−42.8%) hippocampal neurons, as compared to age-matched sucrose controls. Fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring also showed significantly lower volumes for these structures at 2 years of age. In the present study, we examined these same parameters in 12 FAE offspring with a similar average but a larger range of ethanol exposures (1.01–2.98 g/Kg/day; total ethanol exposure 24–158 g/Kg). Design-based stereology was performed on cresyl violet-stained and doublecortin (DCX)-immunostained sections of the hippocampus. We report here significant neuronal deficits in the hippocampus with a significant negative correlation between daily dose and neuronal population in CA1 (r2 = 0.486), CA2 (r2 = 0.492), and CA3 (r2 = 0.469). There were also significant correlations between DCX population in the dentate gyrus and daily dose (r2 = 0.560). Both correlations were consistent with linear dose-response models. This study illustrates that neuroanatomical sequelae of fetal ethanol exposure are dose-responsive and suggests that there may be a threshold for this effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: fetal alcohol exposure; hippocampus; immature neurons; stereology fetal alcohol exposure; hippocampus; immature neurons; stereology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Burke, M.W.; Slimani, H.; Ptito, M.; Ervin, F.R.; Palmour, R.M. Dose-Related Reduction in Hippocampal Neuronal Populations in Fetal Alcohol Exposed Vervet Monkeys. Brain Sci. 2022, 12, 1117. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12091117

AMA Style

Burke MW, Slimani H, Ptito M, Ervin FR, Palmour RM. Dose-Related Reduction in Hippocampal Neuronal Populations in Fetal Alcohol Exposed Vervet Monkeys. Brain Sciences. 2022; 12(9):1117. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12091117

Chicago/Turabian Style

Burke, Mark W., Hocine Slimani, Maurice Ptito, Frank R. Ervin, and Roberta M. Palmour. 2022. "Dose-Related Reduction in Hippocampal Neuronal Populations in Fetal Alcohol Exposed Vervet Monkeys" Brain Sciences 12, no. 9: 1117. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12091117

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