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Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Walter E. Kaufmann and Haruhiro Higashida
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(6), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060792
Received: 26 April 2022 / Revised: 7 June 2022 / Accepted: 15 June 2022 / Published: 16 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Psychiatric Diseases)
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions associated with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and characterized by somatic and neuropsychological alterations. On the other hand, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a multifaceted neurobehavioral syndrome. Since alcohol can affect every stage of brain development, some authors hypothesized that in utero alcohol exposure might be linked to an increased risk of ASD in subjects with genetic vulnerability. The present review aimed to summarize the available literature on the possible association between FASD and ASD, also focusing on the reported clinical overlaps and on the possible shared pathogenic mechanisms. Studies in this field have stressed similarities and differences between the two conditions, leading to controversial results. The available literature also highlighted that both the disorders are often misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed, stressing the need to broaden the perspective, paying specific attention to milder presentations and sub-syndromic traits. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism; autistic traits; fetal alcohol spectrum disorder; fetal alcohol syndrome; neurodevelopmental disorder autism; autistic traits; fetal alcohol spectrum disorder; fetal alcohol syndrome; neurodevelopmental disorder
MDPI and ACS Style

Carpita, B.; Migli, L.; Chiarantini, I.; Battaglini, S.; Montalbano, C.; Carmassi, C.; Cremone, I.M.; Dell’Osso, L. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review. Brain Sci. 2022, 12, 792. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060792

AMA Style

Carpita B, Migli L, Chiarantini I, Battaglini S, Montalbano C, Carmassi C, Cremone IM, Dell’Osso L. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review. Brain Sciences. 2022; 12(6):792. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060792

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carpita, Barbara, Lavinia Migli, Ilaria Chiarantini, Simone Battaglini, Clara Montalbano, Claudia Carmassi, Ivan Mirko Cremone, and Liliana Dell’Osso. 2022. "Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review" Brain Sciences 12, no. 6: 792. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060792

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