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Article

Utility of a Short Neuropsychological Protocol for Detecting HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in Patients with Asymptomatic HIV-1 Infection

1
Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Barranquilla 080005, Colombia
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Department of Industrial Engineering, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla 081007, Colombia
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Department of Psychology, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla 081007, Colombia
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Grupo de Investigación en Psiquiatría (GIPSI), Departamento de Psiquiatría, Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín 050010, Colombia
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Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marco Cavallo
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(8), 1037; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11081037
Received: 15 June 2021 / Revised: 26 July 2021 / Accepted: 29 July 2021 / Published: 4 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Neuropsychology)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a chronic disease that affects ~40 million people worldwide. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are common in individuals with HIV-1 Infection, and represent a recent public health problem. Here we evaluate the performance of a recently proposed short protocol for detecting HAND by studying 60 individuals with HIV-1-Infection and 60 seronegative controls from a Caribbean community in Barranquilla, Colombia. The short evaluation protocol used significant neuropsychological tests from a previous study of asymptomatic HIV-1 infected patients and a group of seronegative controls. Brief screening instruments, i.e., the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), were also applied. Using machine-learning techniques, we derived predictive models of HAND status, and evaluated their performance with the ROC curves. The proposed short protocol performs exceptionally well yielding sensitivity, specificity, and overall prediction values >90%, and better predictive capacity than that of the MMSE and IHDS. Community-specific cut-off values for HAND diagnosis, based on the MMSE and IHDS, make this protocol suitable for HAND screening in individuals from this Caribbean community. This study shows the effectivity of a recently proposed short protocol to detect HAND in individuals with asymptomatic HIV-1-Infection. The application of community-specific cut-off values for HAND diagnosis in the clinical setting may improve HAND screening accuracy and facilitate patients’ treatment and follow-up. Further studies are needed to assess the performance of this protocol in other Latin American populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; AIDS; HAND; neurocognitive disorder; predictive models; neuropsychological screening; machine learning HIV; AIDS; HAND; neurocognitive disorder; predictive models; neuropsychological screening; machine learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martinez-Banfi, M.; Vélez, J.I.; Mebarak Chams, M.R.; Arcos-Holzinger, M.; Acosta-López, J.E.; García, R.; Perea, M.V.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Ladera, V. Utility of a Short Neuropsychological Protocol for Detecting HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in Patients with Asymptomatic HIV-1 Infection. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 1037. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11081037

AMA Style

Martinez-Banfi M, Vélez JI, Mebarak Chams MR, Arcos-Holzinger M, Acosta-López JE, García R, Perea MV, Arcos-Burgos M, Ladera V. Utility of a Short Neuropsychological Protocol for Detecting HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in Patients with Asymptomatic HIV-1 Infection. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(8):1037. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11081037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martinez-Banfi, Martha, Jorge I. Vélez, Moisés R. Mebarak Chams, Mauricio Arcos-Holzinger, Johan E. Acosta-López, Ricardo García, María V. Perea, Mauricio Arcos-Burgos, and Valentina Ladera. 2021. "Utility of a Short Neuropsychological Protocol for Detecting HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in Patients with Asymptomatic HIV-1 Infection" Brain Sciences 11, no. 8: 1037. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11081037

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