Next Article in Journal
New Perspectives in Stroke Management: Old Issues and New Pathways
Next Article in Special Issue
Efficacy of Facial Exercises in Facial Expression Categorization in Schizophrenia
Previous Article in Journal
Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Theory of Mind and Executive Function in Major Depressive Disorder and Its Correlation with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled Trial
Article

Procedural Learning through Action Observation: Preliminary Evidence from Virtual Gardening Activity in Intellectual Disability

1
Aphasia Experimental Laboratory-Fondazione Carlo Molo Onlus, 10121 Turin, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Psicologia, University of Turin, 10124 Turin, Italy
3
IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, 00179 Rome, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, University Federico II, 80133 Naples, Italy
5
Fondazione Agape dello Spirito Santo Onlus-Villa Lauro, 10132 Turin, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Shared first authorship.
Academic Editor: Laila Craighero
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(6), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060766
Received: 17 May 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 9 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of the Sensorimotor System in Cognitive Functions)
Intellectual disability (ID) compromises intellectual and adaptive functioning. People with an ID show difficulty with procedural skills, with loss of autonomy in daily life. From an embodiment perspective, observation of action promotes motor skill learning. Among promising technologies, virtual reality (VR) offers the possibility of engaging the sensorimotor system, thus, improving cognitive functions and adaptive capacities. Indeed, VR can be used as sensorimotor feedback, which enhances procedural learning. In the present study, fourteen subjects with an ID underwent progressive steps training combined with VR aimed at learning gardening procedures. All participants were trained twice a week for fourteen weeks (total 28 sessions). Participants were first recorded while sowing zucchini, then they were asked to observe a virtual video which showed the correct procedure. Next, they were presented with their previous recordings, and they were asked to pay attention and to comment on the errors made. At the end of the treatment, the results showed that all participants were able to correctly garden in a real environment. Interestingly, action observation facilitated, not only procedural skills, but also specific cognitive abilities. This evidence emphasizes, for the first time, that action observation combined with VR improves procedural learning in ID. View Full-Text
Keywords: intellectual disability; virtual reality; action observation; motor resonance; error learning intellectual disability; virtual reality; action observation; motor resonance; error learning
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Giachero, A.; Quadrini, A.; Pisano, F.; Calati, M.; Rugiero, C.; Ferrero, L.; Pia, L.; Marangolo, P. Procedural Learning through Action Observation: Preliminary Evidence from Virtual Gardening Activity in Intellectual Disability. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 766. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060766

AMA Style

Giachero A, Quadrini A, Pisano F, Calati M, Rugiero C, Ferrero L, Pia L, Marangolo P. Procedural Learning through Action Observation: Preliminary Evidence from Virtual Gardening Activity in Intellectual Disability. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(6):766. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060766

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giachero, Alberto, Agnese Quadrini, Francesca Pisano, Melanie Calati, Cristian Rugiero, Laura Ferrero, Lorenzo Pia, and Paola Marangolo. 2021. "Procedural Learning through Action Observation: Preliminary Evidence from Virtual Gardening Activity in Intellectual Disability" Brain Sciences 11, no. 6: 766. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11060766

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop