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Review

Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in the Pathogenesis of Epilepsy: Role of Neuroinflammation. A Literature Review

1
Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194223 St. Petersburg, Russia
2
The Federal State-Financed Institution Golikov Research Clinical Center of Toxicology under the Federal Medical Biological Agency, 192019 St. Petersburg, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Roy Beran
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(5), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050663
Received: 23 April 2021 / Revised: 13 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurring spontaneous seizures. Drug resistance appears in 30% of patients and it can lead to premature death, brain damage or a reduced quality of life. The purpose of the study was to analyze the drug resistance mechanisms, especially neuroinflammation, in the epileptogenesis. The information bases of biomedical literature Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar and SciVerse were used. To obtain full-text documents, electronic resources of PubMed Central and Research Gate were used. The article examines the recent research of the mechanisms of drug resistance in epilepsy and discusses the hypotheses of drug resistance development (genetic, epigenetic, target hypothesis, etc.). Drug-resistant epilepsy is associated with neuroinflammatory, autoimmune and neurodegenerative processes. Neuroinflammation causes immune, pathophysiological, biochemical and psychological consequences. Focal or systemic unregulated inflammatory processes lead to the formation of aberrant neural connections and hyperexcitable neural networks. Inflammatory mediators affect the endothelium of cerebral vessels, destroy contacts between endothelial cells and induce abnormal angiogenesis (the formation of “leaky” vessels), thereby affecting the blood–brain barrier permeability. Thus, the analysis of pro-inflammatory and other components of epileptogenesis can contribute to the further development of the therapeutic treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy. View Full-Text
Keywords: drug-resistant epilepsy; epileptogenesis; neuroinflammation drug-resistant epilepsy; epileptogenesis; neuroinflammation
MDPI and ACS Style

Bazhanova, E.D.; Kozlov, A.A.; Litovchenko, A.V. Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in the Pathogenesis of Epilepsy: Role of Neuroinflammation. A Literature Review. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 663. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050663

AMA Style

Bazhanova ED, Kozlov AA, Litovchenko AV. Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in the Pathogenesis of Epilepsy: Role of Neuroinflammation. A Literature Review. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(5):663. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050663

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bazhanova, Elena D., Alexander A. Kozlov, and Anastasia V. Litovchenko 2021. "Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in the Pathogenesis of Epilepsy: Role of Neuroinflammation. A Literature Review" Brain Sciences 11, no. 5: 663. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050663

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