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Systematic Review

Two Faces of a Coin? A Systematic Review of Source Monitoring and Its Relationship with Memory in Autism

Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, via Bassi 21, 27100 Pavia (PV), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Matthias Kliegel
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(5), 640; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050640
Received: 15 April 2021 / Revised: 6 May 2021 / Accepted: 11 May 2021 / Published: 15 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorder)
The ability to discriminate the origin of stimuli, known as source monitoring, is crucial for self–other distinction and the integration of internally generated and externally generated experiences. Despite its valence, evidence on source monitoring in autism is yet scarce and unclear. We systematically reviewed literature concerning source monitoring in autism and its relationship with other constructs, such as memory type, encoding effects, social cognition, general intelligence, and clinical factors. Source-monitoring performance (operationalized as error or accuracy) was reduced in autistic participants in 9 of the 15 studies that met the inclusion criteria. When explicitly investigated, free-recall memory impairments in autism were shown to influence source monitoring deficits. General intelligence was another important factor linked to source-monitoring performance. Conversely, other memory types or encoding effects were not impaired in autism, and no univocal association could be found with source monitoring. Social cognition and clinical symptoms were rarely assessed in spite of their possible involvement in source monitoring. The heterogeneity of the task design, outcome measures and demographical factors limited study comparability. As a research framework on source monitoring as a construct of primary interest in autism is still lacking, we propose preliminary indications for future investigations based on the collected findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism; Asperger’s; source monitoring; source memory; reality monitoring; action monitoring; old–new recognition; recall; self–other distinction; enactment effect autism; Asperger’s; source monitoring; source memory; reality monitoring; action monitoring; old–new recognition; recall; self–other distinction; enactment effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Damiani, S.; Guiot, C.; Nola, M.; Donadeo, A.; Bassetti, N.; Brondino, N.; Politi, P. Two Faces of a Coin? A Systematic Review of Source Monitoring and Its Relationship with Memory in Autism. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 640. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050640

AMA Style

Damiani S, Guiot C, Nola M, Donadeo A, Bassetti N, Brondino N, Politi P. Two Faces of a Coin? A Systematic Review of Source Monitoring and Its Relationship with Memory in Autism. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(5):640. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050640

Chicago/Turabian Style

Damiani, Stefano, Cecilia Guiot, Marta Nola, Alberto Donadeo, Nicola Bassetti, Natascia Brondino, and Pierluigi Politi. 2021. "Two Faces of a Coin? A Systematic Review of Source Monitoring and Its Relationship with Memory in Autism" Brain Sciences 11, no. 5: 640. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050640

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