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Article

Recalled Parental Bonding Interacts with Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Modulating Anxiety and Avoidance in Adult Relationships

1
Department of Psychology and Cognitive Science, University of Trento, 38068 Rovereto, Italy
2
Mobile and Social Computing Lab, Bruno Kessler Foundation, 38123 Trento, Italy
3
Human Genetics, Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore 138672, Singapore
4
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 636921, Singapore
5
Psychology Program, School of Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639818, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Yasuhiko Yamamoto
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(4), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11040496
Received: 4 March 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 11 April 2021 / Published: 14 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypothalamus, Neuropeptides and Socioemotional Behavior)
Early interactions with significant individuals affect social experience throughout the course of a lifetime, as a repeated and prolonged perception of different levels of care, independence, or control influences the modulation of emotional regulatory processes. As many factors play a role in shaping the expectations and features of social interaction, in this study, we considered the influence of parental bonding and genetic allelic variation of oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (rs53576) over levels of experienced anxiety and avoidance in 313 young adults belonging to two different cultural contexts, namely Italy and Singapore. Results highlighted a major effect of maternal characteristics, care, and overprotection, with differences between the two cultural groups. Additionally, the interaction between rs53576 and maternal overprotection suggested different environmental susceptibility in the Italian sample and the Singaporean one. Implications for clinical work and future steps are described in the Conclusion. View Full-Text
Keywords: parental bonding; close relationship; social behavior; social development; ethnicity; cross-cultural study; oxytocin receptor gene; gene-environment interaction; gene-culture interaction; rs53576 parental bonding; close relationship; social behavior; social development; ethnicity; cross-cultural study; oxytocin receptor gene; gene-environment interaction; gene-culture interaction; rs53576
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cataldo, I.; Bonassi, A.; Lepri, B.; Foo, J.N.; Setoh, P.; Esposito, G. Recalled Parental Bonding Interacts with Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Modulating Anxiety and Avoidance in Adult Relationships. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 496. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11040496

AMA Style

Cataldo I, Bonassi A, Lepri B, Foo JN, Setoh P, Esposito G. Recalled Parental Bonding Interacts with Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Modulating Anxiety and Avoidance in Adult Relationships. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(4):496. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11040496

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cataldo, Ilaria, Andrea Bonassi, Bruno Lepri, Jia N. Foo, Peipei Setoh, and Gianluca Esposito. 2021. "Recalled Parental Bonding Interacts with Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Modulating Anxiety and Avoidance in Adult Relationships" Brain Sciences 11, no. 4: 496. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11040496

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