Next Article in Journal
Changes in Representation of Thalamic Projection Neurons within Prefrontal-Thalamic-Hippocampal Circuitry in a Rat Model of Third Trimester Binge Drinking
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Facilitatory rTMS over the Supplementary Motor Cortex Impedes Gait Performance in Parkinson Patients with Freezing of Gait
Article

Blood Serum Cytokines in Patients with Subacute Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study to Search for Biomarkers of Injury Severity

1
Neurosurgical Department No. 2, Republic Clinical Hospital, 420138 Kazan, Russia
2
Clinical Research Center for Precision and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan, Russia
3
Department of Histology, Cytology, and Embryology, Kazan State Medical University, 420012 Kazan, Russia
4
Division of Biomedical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham Biodiscovery Institute, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lorenzo Rocchi, Anna Latorre and Daniele Belvisi
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030322
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 23 February 2021 / Accepted: 26 February 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
Background. Despite considerable interest in the search for a spinal cord injury (SCI) therapy, there is a critical need to develop a panel of diagnostic biomarkers to determine injury severity. In this regard, there is a requirement for continuing research into the fundamental processes of neuroinflammatory and autoimmune reactions in SCI, identifying changes in the expression of cytokines. Methods. In this pilot study, an extended multiplex analysis of the cytokine profiles in the serum of patients at 2 weeks post-SCI (n = 28) was carried out, together with an additional assessment of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 16 uninjured subjects were enrolled as controls. Results. The data obtained showed a large elevation of IFNγ (>52 fold), CCL27 (>13 fold), and CCL26 (>8 fold) 2 weeks after SCI. The levels of cytokines CXCL5, CCL11, CXCL11, IL10, TNFα, and MIF were different between patients with baseline American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grades of A or B, whilst IL2 (>2 fold) and MIP-3a (>6 fold) were significantly expressed in the cervical and thoracic regions. There was a trend towards increasing levels of NSE. However, the difference in NSE was lost when the patient set was segregated based on AIS group. Conclusions. Our pilot research demonstrates that serum concentrations of cytokines can be used as an affordable and rapid detection tool to accurately stratify SCI severity in patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic spinal cord injury; cytokine profile; inflammation; blood serum; clinical trial traumatic spinal cord injury; cytokine profile; inflammation; blood serum; clinical trial
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Ogurcov, S.; Shulman, I.; Garanina, E.; Sabirov, D.; Baichurina, I.; Kuznetcov, M.; Masgutova, G.; Kostennikov, A.; Rizvanov, A.; James, V.; Mukhamedshina, Y. Blood Serum Cytokines in Patients with Subacute Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study to Search for Biomarkers of Injury Severity. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 322. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030322

AMA Style

Ogurcov S, Shulman I, Garanina E, Sabirov D, Baichurina I, Kuznetcov M, Masgutova G, Kostennikov A, Rizvanov A, James V, Mukhamedshina Y. Blood Serum Cytokines in Patients with Subacute Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study to Search for Biomarkers of Injury Severity. Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(3):322. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030322

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ogurcov, Sergei; Shulman, Iliya; Garanina, Ekaterina; Sabirov, Davran; Baichurina, Irina; Kuznetcov, Maxim; Masgutova, Galina; Kostennikov, Alexander; Rizvanov, Albert; James, Victoria; Mukhamedshina, Yana. 2021. "Blood Serum Cytokines in Patients with Subacute Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study to Search for Biomarkers of Injury Severity" Brain Sci. 11, no. 3: 322. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11030322

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop